The long-tongued nectar bat Macroglossus minimus , also known as the northern blossom bat , honey nectar bat ,  least blossom-bat ,  dagger-toothed long-nosed fruit bat ,  and lesser long-tongued fruit bat ,  is a species of megabat. It has a reddish-brown colouring with relatively long hair compared to the other species. The hair on the abdomen is a lighter colour, and a dark brown stripe runs bilaterally down the top of the head and back. It feeds on nectar and pollen , which it can obtain from mangroves and banana flowers in Malaysia.
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John R. Winkelmann, Frank J. Bonaccorso, Elizabeth E. Goedeke, Laura J. Least blossom bats, Macroglossus minimus Pteropodidae , were monitored by radiotelemetry in lowland rainforest for up to 22 days in Kau Wildlife Area, Madang Province, Papua New Guinea. Based on 1, radiotelemetry positions, mean home range for 18 individuals was 5.
Activity hotspots were associated with flowering bananas, the primary food resource of least blossom bats at Kau. During the day, M. Mean day-roost area was 0. Adult males appeared to exclude conspecifics from rich, compact feeding territories in primary forest. Overlap in home range occurred primarily in gardens and between subadults and other bats. Knowledge of home range, spatial movements, and foraging habits of rainforest animals is an invaluable asset in planning the conservation of biodiversity in developing tropical nations.
It is particularly important to understand the resource requirements of species that perform crucial ecological functions such as pollination or seed dispersal of ecologically or economically important plant species. The least blossom bat, Macroglossus minimus , is the smallest member 16—21 g of the family Pteropodidae Old World fruit bats in the South Pacific region. This distribution results from its ability to cross narrow Pleistocene water gaps and from a plasticity of energy that permits it to maintain populations on very small islands Bonaccorso and McNab In Papua New Guinea, M.
However, M. Similarly, in Sumatra M. Our radiotelemetry study of the least blossom bat, M. This includes similar studies of Syconycteris australis Winkelmann et al. Mist-netting and radiotelemetry were used to investigate home range, core-use area, territoriality, day-roost area, and foraging behavior of M.
Study area. It forms an ha reserve at elevations between 20 and 65 m. Mean annual precipitation at nearby Nagada Harbor is 3, mm — The Biges and Kau rivers and several small tributaries with permanent water flow dissect this area of hills, plateaus, and valleys Fig.
Kau Wildlife Area, Papua New Guinea, with reference points used in radiotracking, in mist-netting, and to locate food resources and habitats. Scales for axes are in meters and are identical to those in Figs.
The study area consists of primary forest, bordered by a complex mosaic of traditional gardens, primary forest remnants, and forest in various stages of regeneration. Up to tree species may occur in a single hectare of primary forest at Kau R. Kitchings, pers. Wild bananas are common along streams and smaller drainage courses and in tree-fall light gaps. In disturbed habitats, wild bananas survive within the forest remnants, usually in small ravines.
Domestic bananas are cultivated in gardens and often persist in abandoned plots during early stages of forest regeneration. Other potential food resources for nectar bats include papaya flowers in gardens, heliconias in forest light gaps, and flowers of bat-pollinated forest trees such as Syzigium.
Each bat was fitted with a color-coded plastic band A. The band passed through 2 slits cut in the patagium on either side of the forearm Bonaccorso et al. Twenty-two bats were fitted with radiocollars: 14 adult males, 4 adult females, 2 subadult females, and 2 sub-adult males.
Age class was based on the degree of closure of epiphyseal growth plates of the phalanges Kunz et al. At the time the radios were affixed, all females were nonreproductive. Additionally, we could detect flight from modulation of the signal strength caused by the whipping motion of the trailing transmitter antenna.
Bats were transported a distance of 4. At the laboratory, transmitters were attached by collars and stabilized at the back of the neck by Skinbond Surgical Cement Smith and Nephew United, Largo, Florida. The collar consisted of wire that ran through a channel in the potting material. The exposed portions of the wire were covered by small-gauge tygon tubing, and the ends of the wire were fastened by a crimp and trimmed to remove sharp points. Complete transmitter and collar units weighed 1.
We chose a somewhat larger unit size to increase battery life while retaining the position-sensitive function that makes it easier to determine if the bat is flying or roosting. In a flight cage, bats with radios did not differ from bats without radios in activity pattern, flight duration, or feeding behavior.
Radios were equipped with batteries that had expected lives of either 6 or 10 weeks. Bats fitted with radiocollars were released within 3 h of capture but were not monitored until the following night. Tracking stations were established at map reference points usually within 20— m of activity centers for each bat foraging patches, commuting lanes, or day roost.
Receivers were moved as necessary to improve reception or to record multiple bearings on a stationary bat. Bearings were taken with a handheld compass Suunto, Helsinki, Finland and were read to the nearest degree.
Also, time, signal strength, and gain setting from gradations added by us to the gain dial of the receiver were recorded with each bearing. Many positions were determined by triangulation when a bat was stationary long enough for bearings to be sighted from 2 or more reference points. Other positions were calculated from single bearings along which distance was estimated from signal strength and gain Law and Lean ; Winkelmann et al.
Relationship of signal strength to distance was experimentally calibrated in the study area at standardized gain settings.
We rarely lost radio contact with a focal animal once its foraging pattern was determined. When radio contact was broken with a moving bat, contact usually was reestablished within 20 min by walking toward the bearing of the disappearing bat.
A map of the study area with a superimposed zero intercept and a grid of x- and y -coordinates Fig. The total area mapped for this study encompassed 80 ha.
Bradbury and S. Vehrencamp, pers. In addition, we calculated day-roost area, defined as the total area encompassed by the resting positions in foliage used during daylight hours for each bat, based on a nonprobabalistic minimum convex polygon method Odum and Kunzler ; Wilkinson and Bradbury This latter method, although it overestimates use areas compared with the Andersen Fourier method, was chosen because of the small sample sizes and small total day-roost areas. All numerical results are reported as means and standard deviations.
Eighteen M. Only 4 females were successfully radiotracked. Home ranges of bats tracked in and are shown in Figs. Radio contact was lost with 3 additional females on the 1st night of tracking. This bat was included in Fig. Home ranges occupied sequentially by 3 adult males are shown in Fig.
Radiotelemetry positions of 6 Macroglossus minimus tracked during overlapping time periods in Total area of plot is ha. Bats are identified by letter and by sex. Radiotelemetry positions of 8 Macroglossus minimus tracked during overlapping time periods in Radiotelemetry positions of 3 adult males that sequentially occupied an area that included 2 stands of wild bananas.
Sample size n is the number of radiotelemetry data points in each data set. Home ranges varied from 0. Core-use areas of all individuals contained at least 1 clump of bananas having at least 1 active inflorescence. The mean day-roost area was 0. Males and females did not differ significantly in home range, core-use area, or day-roost area. Day-roost positions of 7 male and 1 female Macroglossus minimus in Roost areas of individual bats were nonoverlapping, with the exception of 2 roost sites in rectangle that were occupied by males N and O on different nights.
Least blossom bats selected day roosts in closed canopy forest, and in most cases this was in larger stands of primary forest. We were unable to see roosting bats with binoculars, even when roost trees were located by radiotelemetry.
Adult males established day roosts within or adjacent to feeding patches. Two females A and G commuted to foraging areas in disjunct portions of the home range that were and 1, m from their day roosts. Visual observations provided direct evidence of visits by M. For example, 3 visits in rapid succession by a radiocollared bat D to 1 domestic banana inflorescence were seen by one of us FJB. Despite evidence for strong reliance on banana nectar, under some circumstances soft fruits might be nutritionally important.
A single fecal sample collected from M. Some captive M. To our knowledge, this is the first evidence of frugivory in M. Macroglossus minimus coexists in Kau with at least 8 other pteropodid species. Three of these species also were radiotracked during the 7-year period of our study Bonaccorso et al.
Thus, despite differences in diet and in body mass 18—90 g , these solitary, foliage-roosting bats all had home-range sizes similar to that of M.
At Kau, only S. Nonetheless, maximum observed tongue extension in captives was This capability, along with greater reduction of the incisors, suggests that M.
Long-tongued nectar bat
The long-tongued fruit bat is found from urban coastal areas to denser forested areas. It is located in elevations from sea-level up to M Michleburgh et al. Macroglossus minimus , also known by the common name the long-tongued fruit bat, is amongst the smallest of the family Pteropodidae Gunnell et al. The tail is extremely short, reaching to only about 4 mm at the longest length, and the uropatagium is almost non-existent.
Dagger Toothed Long Nosed Fruit Bat
John R. Winkelmann, Frank J. Bonaccorso, Elizabeth E. Goedeke, Laura J. Least blossom bats, Macroglossus minimus Pteropodidae , were monitored by radiotelemetry in lowland rainforest for up to 22 days in Kau Wildlife Area, Madang Province, Papua New Guinea. Based on 1, radiotelemetry positions, mean home range for 18 individuals was 5. Activity hotspots were associated with flowering bananas, the primary food resource of least blossom bats at Kau.
Habitat This species can be found in primary and secondary tropical forest, mangroves, swamp forest, plantations, rural gardens and urban areas from sea-level up to m. During daytime this species can be found roosting under large leaves, branches, loose bark or in bamboo with its wings wrapping around its body. Compared to the other species in its family, the reddish-brown fur on the upperparts of this nectar bat is very long. Like most Old World fruit bats, this species has forward-facing large eyes and rounded nostrils with a distinct middle groove running down to the upper lip. Its muzzle is elongated and narrow with very small teeth and needle-like canines.