Would you like to tell us about a lower price? If you are a seller for this product, would you like to suggest updates through seller support? Khaksar soldiers. It contains descriptive information on the secret and private correspondence of the Secretary of State for India, Viceroy of India, Provincial Governors, and other high officials. It also includes descriptions of classified and confidential documents and intelligence and Provincial Governors' fortnightly reports. It is complimentary to the other chronologies already published by the editor and should be used in conjunction with those works: 1.

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Around , he founded the Khaksar Movement, aiming to advance the condition of the masses irrespective of any faith , sect , or religion. Mashriqi was educated initially at home before attending schools in Amritsar. In he moved to England, where he matriculated at Christ's College, Cambridge , to read for the mathematics tripos.

He was awarded a college foundation scholarship in May After three years' residence at Cambridge he had qualified for a Bachelor of Arts degree, which he took in In he completed a fourth tripos in mechanical sciences, and was placed in the second class.

At the time he was believed to be the first man of any nationality to achieve honours in four different Triposes, and was lauded in national newspapers across the UK. He left Cambridge and returned to India in December On his return to India, Mashriqi was offered the premiership of Alwar , a princely state , by the Maharaja. He declined owing to his interest in education.

At the age of 25, and only a few months after arriving in India, he was appointed vice principal of Islamia College , Peshawar , by Chief Commissioner Sir George Roos-Keppel and was made principal of the same college two years later. In , the British government offered Mashriqi the ambassadorship of Afghanistan, and a year later he was offered a knighthood. However, he however refused both awards. In , he was passed over for a promotion in the government service, following which he went on medical leave.

In he resigned, taking his pension, and settled down in Ichhra , Lahore. In , at the age of 36, Mashriqi completed the first volume of his book, Tazkirah. It is a commentary on the Qur'an in the light of science. It was nominated for the Nobel Prize in , [19] [ full citation needed ] subject to the condition it was translated into one of the European languages.

However, Mashriqi declined the suggestion of translation. A theistic evolutionist who accepted some of Darwin 's ideas while criticizing others, [20] he declared that the science of religions was essentially the science of collective evolution of mankind; all prophets came to unite mankind, not to disrupt it; the basic law of all faiths is the law of unification and consolidation of the entire humanity.

Mashriqi is often portrayed as a controversial figure, a religious activist, a revolutionary, and an anarchist; while at the same time he is described as a visionary, a reformer, a leader, and a scientist-philosopher who was born ahead of his time. After Mashriqi resigned from government service, he laid the foundation of the Khaksar Tehrik also known as Khaksar Movement around Mashriqi and his Khaskar Tehrik opposed the partition of India.

Let there be a common Hindu-Muslim Revolution. Later, Justice Blagden of the Bombay High Court in his ruling on 4 November dismissed any association between the attack and the Khaksars.

In Pakistan, Mashriqi was imprisoned at least four times: in for alleged complicity in the murder of republican leader Khan Abdul Jabbar Khan popularly known as Dr. Khan Sahib ; and, in for suspicion of attempting to overthrow President Ayub's government. However, none of the charges were proven, and he was acquitted in each case. In , Mashriqi allegedly led , of his followers to the borders of Kashmir , intending, it is said, to launch a fight for its liberation.

However, the Pakistan government persuaded the group to withdraw and the organisation was later disbanded. Mashriqi died at the Mayo Hospital in Lahore on 27 August following a short battle with cancer. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Inayatullah Khan Mashriqi. Amritsar , Punjab , British India. Lahore , Punjab, Pakistan. Retrieved 22 January Global Village Space.

Retrieved 24 January Aslam Malik, Allama Inayatullah Mashraqi , page 3. Aslam Malik, Allama Inayatullah Mashraqi , page 4. Shabbir Hussain ed. The Milli Gazette. Oxford University Press. The resolution was a bad omen to all those parties, including the Khaksars, which were, in one way or the other, opposing the partition of the subcontinent.

Indian Independence Movement. Bhaktavatsalam M. Chidamabaram V. Namespaces Article Talk. Views Read Edit View history. Contribute Help Community portal Recent changes Upload file. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. British India Pakistan University of the Punjab Christ's College, Cambridge [2].

Khaksar movement [1]. Indian independence movement Opposition to the partition of India [3].


Khaksar Movement

On March 19, , a large number of Khaksar freedom fighters were massacred while marching in protest of restrictions imposed on their activities meant to bring freedom to the Indian sub-continent. These historic photographs provide a snapshot of the Khaksar movement and its activities, as it rose to prominence and became the most powerful private army the Indian subcontinent has ever known. The Movement sought to instill a spirit of discipline and unity among the masses; the Khaksars wore uniforms, carried spades, symbolising dignity and power of the common man, and held parades and mock wars to inspire Muslims, Hindus, Sikhs, and other communities and to prepare them to seek independence. The Khaksars, hailing from all faiths, sects, genders, ages, and classes worked tirelessly to mobilise the public towards freedom.


Remembering the Khaksar Martyrs of British India

The emphasis was on the brotherhood of mankind and being inclusive for all people. Around , [a] Allama Mashriqi, a charismatic Muslim intellectual whom some considered to be of anarchist persuasion, [5] revisited the principles for self-reform and self-conduct that he had laid out in his treatise , entitled Tazkira. He incorporated them into a second treatise, Isharat , and this served as the foundation for the Khaksar movement, [4] which Roy Jackson has described as being " Adopting the language of revolution, [5] Mashriqi began recruiting followers to his cause in his village of Ichhra near Lahore.


Inayatullah Khan Mashriqi


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