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All these are demanding a new mathematical support of defining the utility. We consider that the definition of the economic utility based on fuzzy sets overcomes these inconveniences. Further more, we consider that the satisfaction of the consumer is also determined by the possibility of inclusion, respectively satisfying a larger set of needs-wills.
The Maslow pyramid is used because this provides a logical hierarchy of human needs and offers an approach based on stages. It is considered that the degree the needs on a particular stage are satisfied is optimized by the resources distribution algorithm. Because this pass supposes a decision from the consumer, a decision regarding the needs-wills on a superior stage, we consider that it is necessary for the effective inclusion in the model of such a decision. For describing the decision of passing to a superior level, we use the fuzzy function of imply.
After the pass, the process of optimizing the resource distribution is restarted on new structure of products corresponding to the needs on the target-stage in Maslow pyramid and so on. And last, the optimum of the consumer can be seen as a tendency to reach the top of the Maslow pyramid, respectively to reach superior levels of needs-wills. This is based on a fuzzy algorithm of resource distribution, created by American researchers A.
Esogbue and Vengalatur Romash , adapted to our hypothesis. Block of Maslow pyramid — which makes the connection between different structures of consumption goods and has a classic form with five levels.
Block of jump — where the fuzzy imply function appears. The general structure of the model is represented in Figure 1. First we have the classification based on the system of needs NS1…NS5 corresponding to the Maslow pyramid. In this way, the first system contains the physiological needs nourishment, clothing, place of living etc. On the next stage, there are the effective products Bijk, which are part of the individual consumption.
Apart from the initial model, we have also introduced different types of products different brands, variety. The consumer chooses between different varieties brands of products, respectively between different consumption formulas and not between products.
When a person buys, he is looking for products which correspond to his culinary recipes and chooses varieties brands of the same products. At this point it is obvious the importance of describing the utility through fuzzy sets, because the element of needs is put together with the wills. The model is grounded on the hypothesis of maximizing the level of satisfying the whole structure of the needs-wills system. Maslow pyramid N.
S2 - Passing N. S5 block Gs G Gh G B ijk Bijm Vijk Vijkw Figure 1. For example, any person needs nourishment and shelter, clothing, etc. The hypothesis of the existence of at least one formula is based on the fact that it is less probable that a consumer will always use the same combination of goods in the same percentage. We start from the premise that every consumer needs diversity.
At this point, we have to consider the budgetary restriction as a linear combination of quantities and prices. Though, the allocated budget is not finally drawn at this moment, the whole budget will be divided on different levels and groups of elements. This is the reason why the model will use a system with budgetary restrictions, system which corresponds to the way of dividing the whole budget on subbudgets.
As a result, there will be budgets for products, for consumption formulas, respectively for types of needs. Between these budget categories will be bonds, which will permit the analyses of different possibilities of general budget distribution in order to best satisfy the whole consumption structure corresponding to each level-stage of needs from the Maslow pyramid. We consider that such a structuring of the total budget is more appropriate regarding the present methods of planning the consumption expenses of the families.
Target function: Despite the traditional approaches, the target of the consumer is to increase the level of satisfying the whole system of needs-wills, respectively of satisfying the whole consumption structure corresponding to each level- stage from Maslow pyramid.
We start the analyses from the base level, level of the variety of the individual consumption products. Such an approach implies the decomposing of the distribution model of the resources in four sub-models, corresponding to the ones of each level of structuring.
The actual structuring of each system of needs NSi is based on more factors, like the income of the consumer, level of education, environment of living, level of culture, social belonging, his needs etc. However, we consider that these structures tend to stabilize in time, while the consumer is forming his own consumption habits. All these elements will define a first draft of the budget, which will be allocated for that product. Let xijkl the budget allocated for one variety of l-product.
The objective function of this first model belongs to the superior level, of the consumption product: 1 aijk xijk1,xijk2, The optimization relation will be: 2 Max aijk xijk1,xijk2, M2 Model: Choosing the consumption goods. The objective function of this first model belongs to the superior level, to the consumption formula.
Such an objective function can be: 7 aij xij1,xij2, The optimizing relation of the model will be: 8 Max aij xij1,xij2, In this way all the combinations of Bijk products are analyzed including the analyses of the allocated amount of each product , so the developing level of the consumption network to be as high as possible with a particular level of budget allocated to this network.
An optimum budget will be identified for the interval xijk , xijk , which could be allocated to Rij consumption network. This means also a growth of the consumption of some products because the characteristic functions of the fuzzy sets which describe the allocated amounts for these products are increasing, with a top limit. This model makes an optimum forecast of allocated budgets for each consumption network, as well as an efficient actual distribution of these budgets on the products which will take part in the consumption process including a selection of these products.
Starting with such forecasts, the M2 Model makes a first optimization of these budgets on consumption activities. Choosing the consumption formula Rij. Till now the M2 Model realized a first selection of consumption goods, based on their contribution to the development of the consumption networks, now we stress the problem of choosing from different consumption formulas, because not all formulas will be developed, the formula which provides the satisfying of a group of needs.
A large number of these networks can be concurrent. For example, the food can be prepared in more ways and is it not necessary that all formulas consumption combinations be applied. Of course, some of the consumption networks which are measured evaluated by the model will remain unselected when using the model.
M4 Model. Choosing the degree of satisfying through consumption the entire system of needs S1 In this model we shall decide on the degree of witch the entire system of primary needs S1 will be covered, taking into consideration the whole available budget of the consumer B. This time we shall consider the fuzzy set Ai, as representing the calculated budget for the type of needs Gi.
The objective function for the M4 model is connected to the entire system of needs N. The conditions for an optimum are: 22 Max A xi, xi, It can be observed that, due to the connection between the four models that form the algorithm, the recurrence relations on different levels can be filled out with other values of the partial budgets corresponding to new divisions of the total budget B.
Marketing deals with various types of consumers1, but what is important to us is the concept of consumer type. The jump also depends on the performances of the consumer in distributing the budget B for the first system of needs-wills. This implies reaching a certain value for the optimum degree of development of the entire NS1 system.
But the passing implies the making of a decision and not an automatic jump. This is the reason we have described the jump as a logical implication.
If the border-level of satisfying the NS1 system is reached then the jump will be made to the NS2 system of needs-wills. Because this level depends on the estimation of the consumer acceptable level — which implies a vague formulation we have used the fuzzy imply function. The easiest way of solving this problem is that the optimizing process is resumed by the consumer, or that individual just waits for a favorable situation to resume the optimizing process.
However, it is highly to believe the situation in which a feeling of frustration may appear on behalf of the consumer, feeling that might create such manifestations from his side. Other marketing sources use a different number of consumer types. We could encounter the alternative of a deviate behavior — theft, robbery, etc. This kind of alternative is in accordance with the hypothesis of the incompressibility of the consumption.
In regard to the peaceful type of deviate behavior, we observe that it is in accordance to the sublimation effect marked out by Sigmund Freud . Here we encounter another connection with the generating mechanisms of demand, where the Freudian system of censorship intervened. For the situations of deviant behavior we have considered two jump levels: - an inferior one, when the consumption incompressibility limit is forced necesitas non habet lege ; - another one, situated on the left neighborhood of the jump level.
From a technical point of view it is rather simple to build a fuzzy characteristic function with more jump levels. The problem consists in making the connection with some fuzzy sentences that describe the actual state of the consumer, respectively with his intentions.
Let X, a fuzzy sentence on the actual state of the consumer, in the following form: I feel pretty good in regard to my basic needs. Let Y, a fuzzy sentence on the future intention of the consumer, in the following form: It is possible to try an improvement of my current consumption.
This implies abnormal social attitudes more then actual actions, such as murder, theft, distruction of goods, etc. A deviant behaviour firstly implies digressions from the normal behaviour rules of a certain human group. Let Z, a fuzzy sentence on a deviant behavior: I will steal in order to have enough money for all my other needs.
Where a0 represents an acceptable level for satisfying the system of needs-wills NS1 , and t0 is an unacceptable inferior level.
Comportamentul consumatorului, Jim Blythe, Editura Teora, 1998.pdf
Baudrillard, Jean , Consumer society. Myths and Structures, Communication Publishing. Blythe, Jim , Comportamentul Consumatorului. The regions will be graded in this way, according to their capacities of assimilating the innovations and their incorporation within the productive system. They are used to obtain a simpler structure useful in a future analysis. One of these benefits of the agglomeration of companies of the same type is, especially for the growing companies, the access to the local skills market which reduces the costs of searching for specialized labor force, meaning positive externalities produced by other companies named by Di Tomasso by-products of cluster activities public goods, non rival common cluster fond.
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