NCBI Bookshelf. Herbal Medicine: Biomolecular and Clinical Aspects. Buswell , and Iris F. Ganoderma lucidum , an oriental fungus Figure 9. It is a large, dark mushroom with a glossy exterior and a woody texture. In China, G.
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NCBI Bookshelf. Herbal Medicine: Biomolecular and Clinical Aspects. Buswell , and Iris F. Ganoderma lucidum , an oriental fungus Figure 9.
It is a large, dark mushroom with a glossy exterior and a woody texture. In China, G. See color insert. The lingzhi mushroom Ganoderma lucidum. Among cultivated mushrooms, G.
A variety of commercial G. These are produced from different parts of the mushroom, including mycelia, spores, and fruit body. The specific applications and attributed health benefits of lingzhi include control of blood glucose levels, modulation of the immune system, hepatoprotection, bacteriostasis, and more.
The various beliefs regarding the health benefits of G. However, recent reports provide scientific support to some of the ancient claims of the health benefits of lingzhi.
Postulated health benefits of lingzhi Ganoderma lucidum. Lingzhi has been recognized as a medicinal mushroom for over years, and its powerful effects have been documented in ancient scripts Wasser The proliferation of G. However, G. The book, which has been continually updated and extended, describes the beneficial effects of several mushrooms with a reference to the medicinal mushroom G. In the Supplement to Classic of Materia Medica AD and the Ben Cao Gang Mu by Li Shin-Zhen, which is considered to be the first pharmacopoeia in China AD; Ming dynasty , the mushroom was attributed with therapeutic properties, such as tonifying effects, enhancing vital energy, strengthening cardiac function, increasing memory, and antiaging effects.
Wild lingzhi is rare, and in the years before it was cultivated, only the nobility could afford it. However, its reputation as a panacea may have been earned more by virtue of its irregular distribution, rarity, and use by the rich and privileged members of Chinese society than by its actual effects. Nevertheless, the Ganoderma species continue to be a popular traditional medicine in Asia and their use is growing throughout the world Wachtel-Galor, Buswell et al. The family Ganodermataceae describes polypore basidiomycetous fungi having a double-walled basidiospore Donk In all, species within the family have been assigned to the genus Ganoderma , of which G.
Karsten is the species type Moncalvo Basidiocarps of this genus have a laccate shiny surface that is associated with the presence of thickwalled pilocystidia embedded in an extracellular melanin matrix Moncalvo Unfortunately, the morphological characteristics are subject to variation resulting from, for example, differences in cultivation in different geographical locations under different climatic conditions and the natural genetic development e.
Consequently, the use of macroscopic characteristics has resulted in a large number of synonyms and a confused, overlapping, and unclear taxonomy for this mushroom. Some taxonomists also consider macromorphological features to be of limited value in the identification of Ganoderma species due to its high phenotypic plasticity Ryvarden ; Zhao and Zhang More reliable morphological characteristics for Ganoderma species are thought to include spore shape and size, context color and consistency, and the microanatomy of the pilear crust.
Chlamydospore production and shape, enzymatic studies and, to a lesser extent, the range and optima of growth temperatures have also been used for differentiating morphologically similar species Gottlieb, Saidman, and Wright ; Moncalvo ; Saltarelli et al. Biochemical, genetic, and molecular approaches have also been used in Ganoderma species taxonomy. Molecular-based methodologies adopted for identifying Ganoderma species include recombinant rDNA sequencing Moncalvo et al.
Other approaches to the problem of G. Owing to its irregular distribution in the wild and to an increasing demand for G. Different members of the Ganoderma genus need different conditions for growth and cultivation Mayzumi, Okamoto, and Mizuno Moreover, different types are favored in different geographical regions. For example, in South China, black G. Since the early s, cultivation of G.
Artificial cultivation of G. Since it takes several months to culture the fruiting body of G. The processes and different growth parameters e. Different culture conditions and medium compositions have also been reported to strongly influence mycelial growth and the production of biopolymers e. For example, Yang and Liau reported that polysaccharide production by fermenter-grown mycelia of G. In a submerged culture of G. A two-stage pH-control strategy, developed to maximize mycelial biomass and EPS production, revealed that culture pH had a significant effect on EPS yield, chemical composition and molecular weight, and mycelial morphology Kim, Park, and Yun The productive mycelial morphological form for EPS production was a dispersed pellet controlled pH shift from 3.
Three different polysaccharides were obtained under each pH condition, and their molecular weights and chemical compositions were significantly different Kim, Park, and Yun More recently, a novel three-stage light irradiation strategy has been developed in submerged cultures of G.
A decade ago, more than 90 brands of G. Worldwide consumption is now estimated at several thousand tonnes, and the market is growing rapidly. Numerous G. In manufacturing terms, the simplest type consists of intact fruiting bodies ground to powder and then processed to capsule or tablet form. Although spore preparations have been researched and promoted vigorously in recent years, any added medicinal effects attributable to the removal or breakage of spore walls, which represents an additional and often costly step in the production process, are still controversial.
Other products are prepared with materials e. The adoption of supercritical fluid CO 2 extraction technologies has enlarged the spectrum of extracted substances due to the low temperature required during processing. Several other products have been prepared as binary, ternary or more complex mixtures of powdered ganoderma and other mushrooms e.
In a study of the nonvolatile components of G. In addition to these, mushrooms contain a wide variety of bioactive molecules, such as terpenoids, steroids, phenols, nucleotides and their derivatives, glycoproteins, and polysaccharides. Mushroom proteins contain all the essential amino acids and are especially rich in lysine and leucine. The low total fat content and high proportion of polyunsaturated fatty acids relative to the total fatty acids of mushrooms are considered significant contributors to the health value of mushrooms Chang and Buswell ; Borchers et al.
Polysaccharides, peptidoglycans, and triterpenes are three major physiologically active constituents in G. However, the amount and percentage of each component can be very diverse in natural and commercial products, as exemplified by the data shown in Table 9. When 11 randomly selected samples of commercial lingzhi products purchased in Hong Kong shops were evaluated for the two major active components, triterpenes and polysaccharides, it was found that the triterpene content ranged from undetectable to 7.
Such variations can occur for several reasons, including differences in the species or strains of mushroom used and differences in production methods. Fungi are remarkable for the variety of high-molecular-weight polysaccharide structures that they produce, and bioactive polyglycans are found in all parts of the mushroom.
Polysaccharides represent structurally diverse biological macromolecules with wide-ranging physiochemical properties Zhou et al. Various polysaccharides have been extracted from the fruit body, spores, and mycelia of lingzhi; they are produced by fungal mycelia cultured in fermenters and can differ in their sugar and peptide compositions and molecular weight e.
Polysaccharides are normally obtained from the mushroom by extraction with hot water followed by precipitation with ethanol or methanol, but they can also be extracted with water and alkali. Branching conformation and solubility characteristics are said to affect the antitumorigenic properties of these polysaccharides Bao et al. The mushroom also consists of a matrix of the polysaccharide chitin, which is largely indigestible by the human body and is partly responsible for the physical hardness of the mushroom Upton Numerous refined polysaccharide preparations extracted from G.
Various bioactive peptidoglycans have also been isolated from G. Terpenes are a class of naturally occurring compounds whose carbon skeletons are composed of one or more isoprene C 5 units.
Many are alkenes, although some contain other functional groups, and many are cyclic. These compounds are widely distributed throughout the plant world and are found in prokaryotes as well as eukaryotes. Terpenes have also been found to have anti-inflammatory, antitumorigenic, and hypolipidemic activity.
Terpenes in Ginkgo biloba , rosemary Rosemarinus officinalis , and ginseng Panax ginseng are reported to contribute to the health-promoting effects of these herbs Mahato and Sen ; Mashour, Lin, and Frishman ; Haralampidis, Trojanowska, and Osbourn Triterpenes are a subclass of terpenes and have a basic skeleton of C In general, triterpenoids have molecular weights ranging from to kDa and their chemical structure is complex and highly oxidized Mahato and Sen ; Zhou et al.
Many plant species synthesize triterpenes as part of their normal program of growth and development. Some plants contain large quantities of triterpenes in their latex and resins, and these are believed to contribute to disease resistance. Although hundreds of triterpenes have been isolated from various plants and terpenes as a class have been shown to have many potentially beneficial effects, there is only limited application of triterpenes as successful therapeutic agents to date.
In general, very little is known about the enzymes and biochemical pathways involved in their biosynthesis. Extraction of triterpenes is usually done by means of methanol, ethanol, acetone, chloroform, ether, or a mixture of these solvents. The extracts can be further purified by various separation methods, including normal and reverse-phase HPLC Chen et al.
The first triterpenes isolated from G. Since then, more than triterpenes with known chemical compositions and molecular configurations have been reported to occur in G. Among them, more than 50 were found to be new and unique to this fungus. The vast majority are ganoderic and lucidenic acids, but other triterpenes such as ganoderals, ganoderiols, and ganodermic acids have also been identified Nishitoba et al. Examples of triterpenes are shown in Figure 9. Chemical structure of lanosterol and three of the many triterpenes isolated from Ganoderma lucidum.
From Kubota, T. Asaka, I. Miura, and H. Helv Chim Acta —9; Nishitoba, T. Sato, T. Kasai, H.
Inoculation technique of ganoderma on oil palm seedling in polybag 
Akurasi Terperiksa. Fomes lucidus f. Cooke, Ganoderma boninense Pat. Rick, Ganoderma noukahivense Pat. Kuntze, Templat:Polyporales-stub Templat:Penyakit-tumbuhan-stub.