IUPAC NOMENCLATURE OF COORDINATION COMPOUNDS PDF

Coordination complexes have their own classes of isomers , different magnetic properties and colors , and various applications photography, cancer treatment, etc , so it makes sense that they would have a naming system as well. According to the Lewis base theory , ligands are Lewis bases since they can donate electrons to the central metal atom. The metals, in turn, are Lewis acids since they accept electrons. Coordination complexes consist of a ligand and a metal center cation. The overall charge can be positive, negative, or neutral.

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Saranya has a masters degree in Chemistry and in Secondary Education. She has taught high school, AP chemistry for 2 years and is teaching undergraduate college chemistry for 3 years. Log in or sign up to add this lesson to a Custom Course. Log in or Sign up. There are some specific rules for naming coordination compounds. Following are the main rules for naming coordination compounds according to the IUPAC recommendations of In the written formula of a coordination compound, the symbol of the central atom is written first.

This is followed by the ionic ligands and then by the neutral ligands. Within each category, the formula of the ligands is listed alphabetically, by the first letter or next. Ligands containing carbon and hydrogen only are grouped under C. For organic ligands containing heteroatoms, the position is determined by the alphabetical sequence of the heteroatom; for example, N of C 5 H 5 N.

If two ligands are present with the same defining atom, one with fewer such atoms precedes that with more. When the number of defining atoms are the same, subsequent symbols are used to determine the sequence. Common abbreviations for ligands may be used.

They should be lower case and enclosed in parentheses. Below are a few illustrative examples:. When naming mononuclear coordination compounds , a specific set of rules apply, outlined below. This is preceded by the names of ligands in alphabetical order. Numerical prefixes like di, tri, etc. Thus, position of dichloro is determined by the alphabet 'C' while diphenylphosphine is determined by 'd' since this is an overall name of the ligand.

The prefixes di-, tri-, etc. All anionic coordination entities end with -ate; no distinguishing terminology is used for cationic or neutral coordination entities. The oxidation number of the central atom in roman numeral or arabic zero is indicated in parentheses after the name of the central atom. Positive signs are not used before the oxidation numbers. No space is left between this number and the name of the central atom. K 3 [Fe CN 6 ] Potassium hexacyanoferrate III - Here, cyanide being an anionic ligand, the suffix-o is added, 6 cyanide ligands brings the term 'hexa' and since this is an A B type complex, the metal gets the suffix -ate.

Since this is not an A B type complex, the metal only gets the oxidation number within parantheses, with its name as it is.

The symbol 'n' with a numerical superscript hapticity indicates the number of ligating atoms in the ligand which bind to the metal atom. Coordination compounds with the same empirical formula but different structures either in atom connectivity or in the orientation of atoms in space are called isomers.

The number of isomers of a complex depends on the geometry, the coordination number of the metal, and the nature of the ligands. In coordination compounds, a four-coordinate metal may have either tetrahedral or square planar geometry and a six-coordinate metal will have octahedral geometry. The stereochemistry three dimensional arrangement of atoms of coordination compounds is more varied since metals involve a much larger number of orbitals s, p and d whose energy and spatial distribution are widely different.

The isomerism in coordination compounds may be classified in two general types, described below. Constitutional isomerism is where two or more compounds differ in bond connectivities. This is also called structural isomerism. Constitutional isomerism may be further subdivided as follows:. Please note they yield a different number of chloride ions on ionization. Such ligands are called ambidentate ligands. For example, the Nitro group may coordinate through either N or O in coordination compounds, and phenyl thiocyanate may coordinate to the metal either through N or S.

Stereoisomerism is where compounds have the same empirical formula and atom-to-atom link sequence, but different arrangement of the atoms in space. Stereoisomerism may be of two types, geometrical and optical isomerism.

Geometric isomers may be cis ligands on same side or trans ligands across isomers. For example, [PtCl 2 NH 3 2 ] may exist in two isomeric forms.

Optical isomerism arises when a coordination compound cannot be superimposed on its mirror image. Depending on the number of unpaired electrons in a coordination compound, a complex may be paramagnetic or diamagnetic. Considering mononuclear complexes, for example, Ti III ion has one d electron and must be weakly paramagnetic, regardless of the geometry or the nature of the ligands.

This is true for [FeF 6 ] 3- ; however, [Fe CN 6 ] 3- only has one unpaired electron, making it a weaker magnet. This trend can be explained based on the spectrochemical series of the ligands. Based off of the spectrochemical series, we expect CN - ligand to have a stronger field than that of F - ligand. So [FeF 6 ] 3- has five electron paramagnetism, whereas [Fe CN 6 ] 3- has one electron paramagnetism. This lesson discussed the main rules for naming coordination compounds and mononuclear coordination compounds.

It also discussed the two types of isomerism in coordination compounds: constitutional isomerism and stereoisomerism. Constitutional isomerism may be further broken down into ionization isomerism , hydrate isomerism , coordination isomerism , and linkage isomerism. Stereoisomerism is of two types: geometric isomerim and optical isomerism.

Geometric isomerism is exhibited by the cis and trans platin complexes. Finally, it discussed the magnetic properties of complexes. Coordination compounds may be paramagnetic or diamagnetic , depending on the nature of the ligands in its coordination sphere. Usually strong field ligands yield low-spin diamagnetic complexes, or complexes with a lower number of unpaired electrons, and weak field ligands produce high spin complexes.

To unlock this lesson you must be a Study. Create your account. Already a member? Log In. Already registered? Log in here for access. Did you know… We have over college courses that prepare you to earn credit by exam that is accepted by over 1, colleges and universities.

You can test out of the first two years of college and save thousands off your degree. Anyone can earn credit-by-exam regardless of age or education level. To learn more, visit our Earning Credit Page. Not sure what college you want to attend yet? Log in. Sign Up. Explore over 4, video courses. Find a degree that fits your goals. Try it risk-free for 30 days. Save Save Save. Want to watch this again later? This lesson will discuss the different rules for naming coordination compounds along with examples.

It will also talk about geometry, isomerism and magnetic properties of some mononuclear coordination complexes. Nomenclature of Coordination Compounds There are some specific rules for naming coordination compounds. The entire coordination entity is enclosed under square brackets. Below are a few illustrative examples: [Ru NH 3 5 N 2 ] Cl 2 pentaamminenitrogenruthenium II chloride [PtBrCl NO 2 NH 3 ] - Amminebromochloronitrito-N-platinum II ion - Here, nitro is an ambidentate ligand , meaning nitro can bind to the metal either through N or O, so we need to specify the dentation through nitrogen and since it is an ion, we write the term 'ion' at the end.

The central atom is named at the end, in accordance with rule 4 stated below. Examples: K 3 [Fe CN 6 ] Potassium hexacyanoferrate III - Here, cyanide being an anionic ligand, the suffix-o is added, 6 cyanide ligands brings the term 'hexa' and since this is an A B type complex, the metal gets the suffix -ate. Geometry and Isomerism Coordination compounds with the same empirical formula but different structures either in atom connectivity or in the orientation of atoms in space are called isomers.

Example of Isomers The number of isomers of a complex depends on the geometry, the coordination number of the metal, and the nature of the ligands. Constitutional isomerism may be further subdivided as follows: a Ionization isomerism - Coordination compounds having different ions in and outside coordination sphere. Linkage Isomerism. Try it risk-free No obligation, cancel anytime. Want to learn more?

Cis and Trans Platin Complexes Magnetic properties Depending on the number of unpaired electrons in a coordination compound, a complex may be paramagnetic or diamagnetic. Lesson Summary This lesson discussed the main rules for naming coordination compounds and mononuclear coordination compounds. Register to view this lesson Are you a student or a teacher? I am a student I am a teacher. Unlock Your Education See for yourself why 30 million people use Study.

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Coordination complex

Saranya has a masters degree in Chemistry and in Secondary Education. She has taught high school, AP chemistry for 2 years and is teaching undergraduate college chemistry for 3 years. Log in or sign up to add this lesson to a Custom Course. Log in or Sign up. There are some specific rules for naming coordination compounds. Following are the main rules for naming coordination compounds according to the IUPAC recommendations of In the written formula of a coordination compound, the symbol of the central atom is written first.

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Nomenclature of Coordination Complexes

A coordination complex consists of a central atom or ion , which is usually metallic and is called the coordination centre , and a surrounding array of bound molecules or ions, that are in turn known as ligands or complexing agents. Coordination complexes are so pervasive that their structures and reactions are described in many ways, sometimes confusingly. The atom within a ligand that is bonded to the central metal atom or ion is called the donor atom. In a typical complex, a metal ion is bonded to several donor atoms, which can be the same or different. A polydentate multiple bonded ligand is a molecule or ion that bonds to the central atom through several of the ligand's atoms; ligands with 2, 3, 4 or even 6 bonds to the central atom are common.

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Coordination Compounds: Nomenclature & Properties

A complex is a substance in which a metal atom or ion is associated with a group of neutral molecules or anions called ligands. Coordination compounds are neutral substances i. You will learn more about coordination compounds in the lab lectures of experiment 4 in this course. The coordination compounds are named in the following way.

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