GYRO THEODOLITE PDF

Surveying Instrument Collection. Description The instrument pictured above is typically used by the military. Their principal application is in mining, tunnelling and gunnery, but in conventional surface surveys they can be used to provide initial orientation, in place of magnetic bearings or astronomical azimuths. The instrument shown at the top is referred to as a 'gyro-theodolite'. The instrument shown on the bottom is a 'meridian indicator' also known as a Precision Indicator of the Meridian which is connected to the gyroscope and includes external connection to the power supply. It is basically a meter graduated directly in angular units, and the reading is thus a maximum when the gyro is pointing north and a minimum when it is pointing east or west.

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The essential elements of the suspended gyro-theodolite are shown in Figure Suspended gyro attachment 4. This system then oscillates slowly about its vertical axis. This allows an instructor to monitor the observations of a student or two observers to work with the same gyro and observations. The precision of reading may be improved with the aid of a parallel plate micrometer attachment that allows coincidence between the image of the moving mark and a scale division to be achieved.

The converter ensures that there is a stable power supply even when the external power supply or internal battery voltage starts to run down. When the spinner is running at full speed the displays on the converter change and the gyro is ready for use.

This is a tricky operation requiring a steady controlled hand and a little bit of luck, to get a satisfactory drop without wobble or excessive swing.

The clamp should be rotated until it meets the stop. Pause for a few seconds to allow any unwanted movement to die down and then lower the clamp.

The gyro is now supported only by the tape and is free to oscillate about its own vertical axis. If this happens then clamp up and try again. Alternatively, wait a little while and the wobble will decay exponentially. Do not allow the moving mark to go off the scale as this may damage the tape, and anyway, no observations can be made. Basic equations There are two basic equations that govern the behaviour of the gyrotheodolite. The first is concerned with the motion of the moving mark as it appears on the gyro scale and in particular the midpoint of that motion.

The second is concerned with the determination of north from the observed midpoints of swing of the moving mark on the gyro scale and other terms. The midpoint of motion of the moving shadow mark may be found from the equation of motion of the moving mark.

It relates the K of equation 1 , determined when the spinner is spinning and also, separately, when the spinner is not spinning. You just clipped your first slide! Clipping is a handy way to collect important slides you want to go back to later. Now customize the name of a clipboard to store your clips. Visibility Others can see my Clipboard. Cancel Save.

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We'd like to understand how you use our websites in order to improve them. Register your interest. With the method of analytical mechanics, this paper studies the motions of a gyrotheodolite under the action of 1 the torque of gravity only, 2 the torque applied by the band suspension, 3 the torque of the band suspension with air damping considered, the equations of motion are then established and their solutions are found. Furthermore, analysis of the law of motion and the behaviour of gyro-theodolite during the orientation is made. This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access. Rent this article via DeepDyve.

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Gyrotheodolite

In surveying , a gyrotheodolite also: surveying gyro is an instrument composed of a gyroscope mounted to a theodolite. It is used to determine the orientation of true north. It is the main instrument for orientation in mine surveying [1] and in tunnel engineering, where astronomical star sights are not visible and GPS does not work. This principle was adapted by Max Schuler in to build the first surveying gyro. In , the gyro-theodolite — at that time called a "meridian pointer" or "meridian indicator" [2] — was first used by the Clausthal Mining Academy underground. Several years later it was improved with the addition of autocollimation telescopes.

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E-mail :. The gyro theodolite is an instrument for measuring the true north angle by combining the gyroscope and the theodolite through a connecting mechanism. It utilizes the physical characteristics fixed axis and precessibility of the gyroscope itself, and uses the metal belt to suspend the gyro sensitive part of the center of gravity to sense the horizontal component of the angular velocity of the earth's rotation, and generates a northward thrust under the action of gravity. The gyroscope main shaft reciprocates around the meridian plane of the earth to determine the true north angle. The gyro theodolite is widely used in mine surveying, engineering surveying and military surveying.

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Analysis of the motion of a gyro-theodolite

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