G.SARTORI TEORIA DEMOKRACJI PDF

Participatory democracy is one of the potential directions of development of the system of social organization. The search of opportunities to improve the current system results from the incompatibility of the present solutions to the times we live in. A significant impact on the devaluation of the system of representative democracy is the development of technology, which results in a faster flow of ideas the Internet, elimination of barriers to communication. Thus, for several years now there have been made attempts to create different types of communication platforms on the axis citizens-the authority. Solutions of this type progressively enter the democratic practice.

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The term marketing party is based on the model of market-oriented party applies to newly rising parties the political product characterized with flexibility and readiness to adjust to changing expectations of voters. Marketing parties should be understood as designed ones, being an answer for expectations of voters and appropriately modified to them — this way marketing parties profoundly use marketing theories.

Another question is whether that tendency is a chance for a renewal of modern democracy. The aim of this article is to present political parties that have appeared on the European political stage in the last decade and to compare them to the traditional model [1] with the aim of indicating their specific features. It should be underlined that the term "marketing party" itself is a new defining expression and thus does not constitute a separate category in describing political party scene within the field of political science.

The role of marketing for existence of political parties is most often reduced to voting campaigns and communication. Meanwhile, marketing parties should be understood as designed ones, being an answer for expectations of voters and appropriately modified to them — in this meaning marketing parties profoundly use marketing theories. Therefore, the following text aims to assess the extent to which the establishment of a distinct model is necessary, and to test the degree to which this model might be adequate for the political entities present today.

Thus the term "marketing parties" should be considered as a particular theoretical construct that needs to be analyzed rather than found as a categorized point of reference. The assessment that follows is thereby grounded on a supposition that this particular type of political entities has already entered onto the European public space.

The article is supposed to answer the question whether those new political parties can be a model for a new path of development on the European political scene. The readers should take into consideration that all the arguments are probabilist in nature, because they are limited to pointing certain conditions allowing the creation of those particular parties, to analyzing the stimuli, which under specific conditions, might come to this particular trend.

We might define it not as a new tendency but as its new intensity — the attribute becoming a constructive feature. The main goal of the article is to present the essence of marketing parties, however as it takes a model approach, real political entities may have specific characteristics that do not fall into the specified model.

In particular, in what way the fact will influence the social commitment, namely the drive to become active within the community? This thesis will be proven with shortly presented arguments.

However, the main objective of this article is to specify political parties and, provided the classification is performed, to state whether they really exist as a common and uniform phenomenon that will give us the opportunity to distinguish a new party model.

The next issue is to show their dissimilarity as compared to political parties existing earlier, and to provide a sound explanation of all the changes that have occurred. Finally, try to present their function nowadays and indicate some examples. There might be a methodological problem that we will have to face. That is finding the border point, with the crossing of which, we might speak of a new development path — we must also answer the question of whether all the political parties follow this pattern nowadays.

The analysis is a twofold one: one covers West-European countries considering their similar level of social and demographic stratification and post-communist countries where we can observe certain similar social behaviors, yet, at the same time, substantial differences—all being the result of the previous period [5].

Both the conditioning and the functioning of political parties will be totally different within those two abovementioned parts. As the examples of new events taking place on European political scene will be used chosen West-European groups as well as those from post-communist region. Thus Italian Forza Italia and Slovak ANO illustrate how groups are built on the basis of media — resours extremely important for the contemporary world. Polish Civic Platform Platforma Obywatelska - PO in the moment of its creation January 19 th , was an economic party, it also represents the group that decided to treat its ideological dimension as a distinctive competence.

Whereas the other Polish force Demokraci. Also PO may be interpreted to some extend in that category. What is the essence of marketing parties? Firstly basic categories used in his article should be explained. Whereas political marketing means activities, in which organizations adjust marketing strategies, normally used in regard to products and services, to accomplish their own goals.

Moreover, political marketing is very often identified as a marketing method used occasionally during the election campaigns. It is used more or less by all political groups.

In his article, to avoid reduction to communication techniques, the model of marketing parties treats political marketing as wider and more complex subject. It is characterize with the usage of marketing to all aspects of political activity Lees — Marshment a , Lees — Marshment b , That does not change the fact that history of political parties is in a large part the history of changes in the field of political communications Roemmle, Market-oriented parties, distinguished by J.

Lees — Marshment, are utilised for its generation. Their primary function is to satisfy voters. The category is based on one of the approach towards a consumer of goods, that is, the consumer needs fulfilment. According to this approach, the product is generated and modified accordingly so as to meet the customer's needs.

The ongoing adaptability to given circumstances enables its continuing presence on the market J. Lees — Marshment b , If a given political party adapts the approach, it may become, at least in theory, a competitive organ compared to other parties with no such approach taken.

However, the approach cannot be utilised as effectively in terms of political market as in the case of the market of goods and services, which I shall discuss shortly.

Difference between market — oriented parties and marketing parties results from understanding marketing parties as new subjects in political sphere which use marketing rules. To clarify market — oriented party described by J. Lees — Marshment is more suitable term for already existing subjects that change strategy of competition on political market British Labour Party. Whereas the term marketing party applies to newly rising parties the political product characterized with flexibility and readiness to adjust to changing expectations of voters.

Important for specifics of marketing parties is also area where they were risen and started to achieve success. These are countries after transgression or political crisis. That is why Slovakia, Lithuania, Italy, Poland are mentioned. The example of viewpoint change for marketing might be British Labour Party [przypis]. Worth to notice is that setting up marketing groups is connected with open attitude of party system for new subjects.

In systems with limited access to political market, existing groups adapt to strategy of market-oriented parties. If we try to categorize clearly, we may say that the term of marketing party is subdivision of market — oriented party and regarding strategic usage of marketing it is the next stage for adjustment of marketing in public sphere.

Consequently, it affects function of party groups in political system, change in this field is the most significant and fully demonstrates specifics of marketing parties. Market-oriented party is not the only one model of political group which base on marketing theory.

Voter receives completed product which can be accepted or rejected. It has more intensive contact with consumers than product — oriented party. It is aware that voters may not accept the party as completed, unchangeable product.

It takes into account marketing researches for the choice of selling strategy and what is most important concentrates on communication or else mutual relation between party and citizen. Lees — Marshment a , Practically the second attitude, used by the majority of contemporary groups that use political marketing, approach them to sales-oriented party and is a part of mentioned above main course of discussion on the role of strategies — the one which emphases selling during voting campaign.

Lees- Marshment created a scheme describing building process of marketing oriented party. It is valuable for abort marketing parties. See figure 1, J. The political parties are formed by the specific activities of individuals or groups of people who usually become leaders through those phenomenon. If we decide to use economical terminology, they constitute the supply side, whereas the society can be referred to as the demand side. In that case, it is essential to connect two types of activities: building the party by politicians and the will of citizens.

That is the only way to bring in the party and fulfill its mission. It is also a very helpful factor to distinguish between some periods in the life-cycle of political parties. I will present a short analysis of changes that have influenced the shape of political parties and also determin the appearance of marketing parties. Marketing parties function differently in comparison with the traditional ones.

The most fundamental difference is that their structure, program, promoted values and promotion campaigns are the results of well-organized and well-thought marketing and sale strategy on the political market directed to a specific target. This is the reason why some categories used to describe behavioural patterns and functions of political parties might change.

In that case, the political plan is a result of a critical estimation of a current public situation, distinguishing the main problems and presenting the methods of solving them. In case of the marketing parties we can observe the total change of the steps sequence , with the forming of a political appeal being an outcome. Forming and introducing a new party on a political stage demands to do u really defeat a threshold?

Moreover, it is a long and arduous process of a political and social aggregation. The moment when a party appears on a political stage is not instantaneous to moment of establishing connection with the society.

Analyzing the political market before a party actually enters the political game, enables communication with the target as soon as the party makes it into the political reality. It is also possible due to all the changes that improved communication processes nowadays. In other words, firstly the political party has to be formed for the process of political and social aggregation to be executed.

Undoubtedly, it is is a great advantage for marketing parties especially when they are in the process of formation. It is much harder to introduce a new commodity to the political market then to any other market.

Moving forward we can observe that members and the structure are not as important factor for marketing. Marketing parties resigned from presenting their own propositions — which is totally different than creating social preferences — yet they focus on determining listening to and adjusting to social needs.

They are formed in the way the society wants them to be formed. Based on this information we can identify two basic changes: the first one is the method of building party program.

Their active functioning a public environment is rather a distinct one— which might be a paradox, considering the fact that this feature defines their attractiveness. To understand correctly the function of parties in the political world and on the political market we need to consider the issue from the right perspective, namely we should assume the point of view of parties themselves.

In the light of the marketing electors are a group of completely diverse units of differential demographic and social segments with different social needs Mazur, Earlier society was treated as a collection of different entities, yet since the crisis of mass parties took place, we can no longer talk about covering social divisions with political affiliation. That is why marketing groups have to define their electoral target by taking into consideration which part of electors will be most needed to win the expected amount of votes.

This is the main factor that influences qualification and positioning of a given electoral offer Mazur, Division of market to some extend may be based on or identified with devisions based on cleavages that characterize classical debate about development of party systems. An electoral offer includes two components: a candidate and a program. Both of them are the final product of a long-lasting process which includes the specific research and as a result of that a recognition and the best approach to the social expectation.

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Marketing parties as a model of development of contemporary political parties.

The older trend in political science, one that has scarcely any followers nowadays, tended to reduce politics to the activities of the State. This trend, markedly influenced by the study of law, connected political science with the juristic science of government allgemeine Staatlehre , which resulted in establishing a narrow scope of the subject-matter of the former 1. Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF. Skip to main content. This service is more advanced with JavaScript available. Advertisement Hide.

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