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Luminescence flaw detection, penetrant. Tangential on the distance of mm from heat treated. Catalogue of steel grades AISI Catalogue of steel grades C45 EN Catalogue of steel grades SJ2G3. DIN The production capability of the arc-furnace melting shop is supported by the following equipment: - tons EAF the transformer capacity of 50 MVA fitted with manipulator and intensifying units made by CVS. The manipulator is equipped with three lances two of which are used for oxygen blowing, and one is for blowing carbon dust - tons EAF the transformer capacity of 32 MVA - 50 tons EAF the transformer capacity of 15 MVA fitted with the wall oxygen water cooling lance - 12 tons EAF the transformer capacity of 15 MVA - Ladle furnace unit the transformer capacity of 18 MVA fitted with wire addition system and loose materials addition system - Vacuum degassing unit VD fitted with power pumps to ensure and maintain the pressure of lower than 1 mbar.
The unit is fitted with wire addition system. Depending on the final product requirements, steel melting process incorporates melting in the electric arc furnace, secondary refining using Ladle furnace and vacuum degassing followed by vacuum top pouring or air bottom pouring with ensuring metal stream protection from the secondary oxidization.
Various methods and processes, such as silicon free bulk deoxidization, vacuum carbon deoxidization VCD in the ladle and in the stream during pouring as well as argon blowing, wire addition and microalloying, are successfully implemented into practice to ensure and maintain high quality of metal.
Production capabilities together with advanced operational control facilities and modern production technology allow to meet customers'demands and ensure high quality products. High metal quality is presented by the following figures: - the content of detrimental impurities in steel not alloyed with the given agents - Sulphur S no more than 0.
Forging production 15 tons, 6 tons and 3 forging presses Due to unique capabilities of forging division it has become possible to forge up to tons ingots made of carbon steel, alloy steel, corrosion resistant and heat resistant steel. The processes that eliminate deviations from an equilibrium condition are passed spontaneously, and heating at 1 st sort annealing iis performed only for their acceleration.
As a result the metal becomes weakened and more plastic. Annealing that reduces the pressure, is applied to products in which at pressure machinability, casting, welding, heat treatment, etc. Residual stresses can cause distortion of the shape and sizes of a product during its machining, operation or storage in a warehouse.
At 2nd sorts annealing the product is to be cooled together with the furnace or on air. During the last process is called as normalization. The normalization mode is defined by heating temperature austenitizing , holding time at this temperature and speed of cooling. Holding time should be minimum to provide uniform heating along the product section. The increase in speed of heating, minimum possible temperatures and holding time provide the reception of smaller austenite grain and more disperse mixture of pearlite or sorbite with ferrite.
Due to quenching the supersaturated solid solution is formed. Cooling should be passed with such speed that "normal" diffusive transformations is not occured and lattice reorganisation proceeded on the mechanism of diffusionless martensite transformations. At quenching on martensite the carbon steels are embrittled sharply. The principal reason is small mobility of dispositions in martensite. These zones and disperse particles of the allocated phases brake sliding of dispositions than hardening is caused at ageing.
The reason of overageing is coagulation of disperse emission from a solution which consists in dissolution of smaller particles and growing of larger particles of the allocated phase.
As a result of coagulation the distance between these particles is increased and braking of dispositions in grains of a solid solution is decreased. Alloys, mainly the steels quenched on martensite are subjected for tempering.
Difference of tempering from ageing is connected first of all with features of a substructure of martensite, and also with behaviour of carbon in martensite of the quenched steel.
The big number of defects of a crystal structure is typical for martensite dispositions, etc. As a result the tempering of steels, as a rule, leads to decrease in hardness and strength with simultaneous growth of plasticity and impact strength. Thus the hardening reason is the same as at ageing.
Terms "tempering" and "ageing" are often used as synonyms. Heat treatment causing various structural changes by the nature allows to operate with a structure of metals and alloys and to receive products with specified complex of mechanical, physical and chemical properties. Due to this a heat treatment process is the most widespread way of metal materials properties changes in the industry.
Tensile strength test. Bending Charpy Impact test. Ferrous and non-ferrous metal forgings. Methods of ultrasonic flaw detection. Luminescence flaw detection, penetrant dye flaw detection, luminescence-penetrant dye flaw detection. Main procedures. Energy equipment of nuclear power plant.
Procedure of magnetic-particle inspection. Procedure of ultrasonic control. Part 1. Steel casting for wide range of use. These parts require toughness of core, high surface hardness that is useful for operation at impact loading. These parts require high toughness and medium hardenability.
After chemico-thermal treatment the gears, screws and other parts require high surface hardness at medium core strength. Short-link Link Embed.
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Properties: - tool steel for hardening in oil and on air - well polishable - excelent toughness - fail-safe against high pressures and bending Application: - synthetic resin dies, tools for embossing, dies of any kind - high loaded knifes for shears for cutting scrap. Elastic modulus E. Melting point T m. Specific heat capacity c p. We will provide you with a list of recommended suppliers within our network.
DIN 17350 Grade X45NiCrMo4 quenched and tempered (+QT)