Agribusiness model approach to territorial food development. Modelo agroempresarial con enfoque territorial para el desarrollo alimentario. Rural development is considered as a process that aims to improve the current capacity and potential of the inhabitant of the sector, which refers not only to production levels and productivity of agricultural items. It takes into account the guidelines of the Organization of the United Nations "Millennium Development Goals" and considered the concept of sustainable food and agriculture development, including food security and nutrition in an integrated interdisciplinary context, with holistic and systemic dimension. Analysis is specified by a model with an emphasis on sustainable agribusiness production chains related to agricultural food items in a specific region. This model was correlated with farm technical objectives , family social purposes and community collective orientations projects.
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Agribusiness model approach to territorial food development. Modelo agroempresarial con enfoque territorial para el desarrollo alimentario. Rural development is considered as a process that aims to improve the current capacity and potential of the inhabitant of the sector, which refers not only to production levels and productivity of agricultural items.
It takes into account the guidelines of the Organization of the United Nations "Millennium Development Goals" and considered the concept of sustainable food and agriculture development, including food security and nutrition in an integrated interdisciplinary context, with holistic and systemic dimension. Analysis is specified by a model with an emphasis on sustainable agribusiness production chains related to agricultural food items in a specific region. This model was correlated with farm technical objectives , family social purposes and community collective orientations projects.
Within this dimension are considered food development concepts and methodologies of Participatory Action Research PAR. Finally, it addresses the need to link the results to low-income communities, within the concepts of the "new rurality". Key words: rural and food development, sustainable agribusiness model, participatory action research, territorial approach. Finalmente, se contempla la necesidad de vincular los resultados a comunidades de escasos recursos, dentro de los conceptos de "nueva ruralidad".
To promote integrated development in rural communities in Colombia and other Latin American countries have proposed different working models that emphasize specific aspects of the so-called "agricultural production systems". In some cases special attention is paid to the generation of new technologies to increase production and productivity of crops and livestock, others try to improve marketing processes of the products obtained, there are also efforts to carry out processes transformation of primary products and programs that seek to achieve improvements in social aspects of agricultural production chains or value chains.
Arise in this scenario agribusiness models also have different modes of action. In Colombia, known, for example, works that attempt to link these models with regional developments and some processes that link them primarily economic sustainability and trade.
In this way it seeks to consider and study the activity of the national camp as a joint body in which to work from the basic scope of the macro level, which looks at the products and the farms or production units as vital body cells agricultural to the macro boundaries every day become more important when planning the production activity to the territory, region and national and international trade. Within this guidance is transcendence approaches that emphasize the generation of projects at the farm level technical criteria , families social contexts and communities collective level , always seeking to improve the quality of life of producers and their families.
That's why, once posed a clear organization CIINDA was possible to meet various institutional applications among which one of the Mayor of Bogota in and , through its District Department of Economic Development SDDE to treat to provide business insight to producers and marketers of raw milk in a rural part of the Capital District, presented at the end of this article.
In a presentation on the approach to rural development, A. Barrel did a review of the evolution of thought on the subject between and the current decade. In this comprehensive review of the concept of agricultural enterprises and rural, Murcia noted that "rural development aims to improve the current capacity and potential of rural dweller, an action that can not refer only to increase production levels and agricultural productivity of the lines it operates, but also act on all elements that affect their well being and full satisfaction".
This is why the same technician synthesizing the overall rural development is part of a national and international level Fig.
For the rural development project within a holistic approach, the result of the aggregation of exogenous and endogenous subsystems that relate to obtaining optimal physical fields such as biological, economic, social, environmental, accompanied by the elements of an administrative subsystem within a context, can lead to appropriate decision-making processes Figs.
It is also important to see the human being as subject and object of development, and consider the concept of agricultural enterprises in Latin America as the sum of a set of units or minimum characteristics physical, economic, social, administrative, legal, information, environment within a context where the social component plays a major role Murcia and Araujo, Alvarez has reflected on the need to rethink the development paradigm model, with reference to the Development Program UNDP , seeking the articulation of sustainable human development approach to education for the agricultural sector.
Within the current concepts of Integral and Sustainable Human Development ISHD , the research group "Creativity and Innovation Agriculture for Sustainable Rural Development", recognized by Colciencias which are located in developments presented in this paper , participates in guidelines expressed by Lopez et al. On the prospects of this model is making efforts to improve the potential of each of the constituent parts of an integrated system of development through the integration of creativity and innovation techniques.
In this there is consistency with the views of Drucker who claimed that innovation is the specific role of entrepreneurship in existing businesses and any business. Reiterates that the venture does not always require a profit motive, which has served as a reference for the social enterprise associated with the work of service organizations and communities.
One of the development criteria is related to the food and nutritional context. Consistent with these approaches for the Colombian case, there are goals and strategies for achieving the Millennium Development Goals defined in the Social Conpes 91 Also linked agri-food development approaches that comprise the context of food security and nutrition. According to the Social Conpes of the National Economic and Social Policy of the Republic of Colombia, that security is "sufficient and stable availability of food, access and timely and uninterrupted use of the same quantity, quality and safety by all people, under proper conditions for its biological use to lead a healthy and active life".
The same text states that food and nutrition security revolves around the following themes: a Availability of food, b physical and economic access to food, c food consumption, d use or biological use, e quality and safety. These axes imply the need to overcome new challenges to integrate proposals covering all aspects of development, ie. We conclude that this is a complex process that requires the participation of many stakeholders.
One of the most important has been assigned to the University, which institution has the responsibility of leading change processes to improve the living conditions of populations, especially the most vulnerable. Within this context are identified food and nutrition characteristics of geographical areas that are treated in favor, considering that malnutrition is considered a disease, resulting from inadequate food intake both in quality and quantity, causing problems physical and mental health.
If you look at strategies implemented nationally 2. For the rural agricultural sector these documents should also be considered: Conpes food safety , Conpes chains of meat and milk , Conpes health in the pork chain and Conpes health of the poultry chain. Also must align with the policy criteria of sanitary and phytosanitary in Colombia. It is important to include strategies for social risk management that include promotion and prevention, mitigation and overcoming climate change and promoting healthy lifestyles.
Systems research extension to agricultural business development, rural and agri-food. All geographic regions in Colombia require extensive support in the current circumstances to address the difficulties being experienced.
One activity that has been considered to contribute importantly to the formation and consolidation of companies in the primary, secondary and tertiary updated by applying concepts of "Management and Management". This conceptualization refers to the modern dimension of "enterprise": in the case of agriculture, is related to the different objectives of the producers in the management of their productive units.
Within the business perspective each person sees the farm or production unit with several approaches, depending on their interests. By restricting these approaches to what is meant by "agricultural trade or business" and "peasant economy" has been discussed on the criteria of rationality of the producer in each case. For the subsector "business" the objective is to maximize net profit and quantify the costs and revenues. The decision unit is the company and planning decisions are made in material benefits.
In the rural subsector is based on the family action, not the company and its orientation is focused on improving the quality of life of human beings that make up the production unit. On the other hand, recognizes the need to adapt approaches "Extension, technology transfer and technical assistance" aimed in one way or another benefit to agricultural producers and end users with technologies generated in research centers.
Without compromising the importance of developing support efforts for specific technology or productive sector, it is believed to strengthen these procedures relevant to the understanding that their actions in one way or another are framed within a global context and business work will vary as the commercial dimension or of the peasant economy. This involves conducting applied research that will enable design and operating models of extension to the agricultural and rural business development.
This may be a feasible alternative to carry out in Colombia. Reference to a sustainable agribusiness model with emphasis on agricultural production chains.
These criteria are specified by means of a sustainable agribusiness model with emphasis on agricultural production chains linked to the food issue. These concepts have been linked to a new orientation of agricultural and rural business management that has to do with "[…] all variables internal, external to the firm, manageable or unmanageable by the employer that characterize the production units, industrial or services present in the agricultural sectors and rural areas" Murcia, It is essential, therefore, to undertake these tasks with attention to several areas of action.
It is understood that the agribusiness model has relationships within the context of holistic production lines optimal physical and biological related to obtaining adequate levels of production and productivity cases in the areas of processing and agro-processing, livestock, technological innovation , economic economic optimum merge with the concepts of profit-business area basis , social welfare conditions and quality of life - as about family businesses and improving living conditions , management decisionmaking processes , environmental eg.
Within this dimension of agriculture development considers the concepts and methodologies of Participatory Action Research PAR , which differs from traditional research in the sense of ensuring that the communities in which they do research, have interference in their processes, results and determination of its findings.
Recalling the origins of the PAR remembers Lewin who presented as an alternative to traditional research, in which the separation between science and practice was radical. According to De Miguel , PAR identifies as "[…] a collective pursuit of knowledge for the use and provide results rests with the government involved, which must have given the process of knowledge while experienced collective maturation process". Referring to the general characteristics of this methodological approach, Ramirez notes the following aspects:.
Study guides a process of reality or of selected aspects of it, with scientific rigor. There is action that leads to social change or transformation. Action research is not only done by experts, but with the participation of the community involved in it. It is mentioned that the IAP does not end in the production of knowledge, but is intended to act against social realities, asserting that "there is a major concern obtaining data or finding of facts in a unique and exclusive The priority is the dialectic that is set to the social partners, ie.
From this perspective it is inconvenient to create a closed methodological framework, as a cookbook, which will set the pace of what should be done at any time. Rather, it is important to establish criteria that will advance the creation of "a more open research context, so that their to deepen it" Villasante, Methodological processes are applied as indicating Marti , which include a step of obtaining secondary information on communities and regions in which to work, a phase groupings of PAR and primary data collection, another analysis All the data obtained and the final schedule of actions to be undertaken to establish improvement plans to run.
As part of the framework envisages the need for research and link the results to low-income communities within the modern concepts of "new rurality" as the focus of the territory in which to achieve substantial improvements accompanied by the principles of the solidarity economy, family businesses and other strategies for social, economic and political. As stated by Echeverri and Ribero "the new rurality part of a review of the rural, in defining this area as the area built from the use and appropriation of natural resources, where production processes are generated, cultural, social and political".
This concept calls, according to the same specialists, "[…] a new approach to the economy of the territory in which up to now exclude include aspects such as environmental and ecological economics, environmental services markets, sustainability of production systems".
Barrel indicates that the territorial approach can be considered "as an emerging paradigm of rural development while addressing the concerns about the sustainability of livelihoods, local governance and cooperation, overcoming the agricultural economy by a larger territorial economy".
By agreement of the Mayor of Bogota District Department of Economic Development SDDE and the Universidad de la Salle was held in , "Project on entrepreneurship, innovation and agriculture development in rural areas of the Capital District," which was developed as a research project of the college.
This project is linked in the "master plan food supply and food security in Bogota" formulated by the Capital District of Bogota 3. Preliminary phase. The technical team was selected in a process of characterizing the basic business needs of the project. The staff was chosen early induction.
Organizational stage. The continued development of the project coordination with the District Department of Economic Development spanish acronym, SDDE to integrate efforts in the organizational structure. Methodological design. In the formulation of the problem, confirmation of objectives, methods and procedures corroboration reaffirmed the original approach of the project. Data collection and analysis of information through training to communities.
Workshops were conducted based on the methodology caribbean Total Quality Management, Reengineering and Strategic Bases for Strengthening Business designed and directed by this article author. Thus, producers identified areas of collaboration participatory project, which, in order of priority, were:. It defines the preliminary conclusions of the PAR process.
To address the first priority indicated, detailed surveys were conducted. In accordance with the results of these surveys were identified proposals that the communities wanted to work at their farms.
The results were confirmed in the training process was subsequently developed. As a result of the first exploratory activities and participatory assessments, there were the following assumptions or perceptions on the various project areas:. Organization of exploratory research results. Joint planning of possible actions to be developed This process came to PAR approach to developing plans. The main points made in each area of work were the following:.
The main actions considered in this area were: Training and preparation of booklets on dairy and milk processing; tours to successful businesses; participation in the development of business plans for creative ideas identified; plan for agri-food producers and their families. Also developed the diagnostic process through surveys of farmers and their families to know the diet consumed daily. The results of the surveys, analyzed by indicators of feeding behavior could be seen excesses and nutritional deficiencies.
The main actions considered in this area were: Approach to alternatives related to crops; technical and economic analysis; design essentials for training and development of appropriate primers to these agricultural alternatives.
Policy - Plan Nacional de Seguridad Alimentaria y Nutricional
The PNSAN is a set of objectives, Objective, strategies and actions proposed by the Colombian State in a framework of shared responsibility with civil society aimed to:. The target population for PNSAN is the entire Colombian population; however it emphasizes the most deprived and vulnerable territories and populations, among which are the population living in extreme poverty, displaced by violence and those affected by natural disasters; as well as, children, pregnant women, nursing mothers and the elderly. Contribute to improving the food and nutrition conditions of the entire Colombian population, especially the poorest and most vulnerable. The target population for PNSAN is the entire Colombian population, however it emphasizes on the most deprived and vulnerable territories and populations, among which are the population living in extreme poverty, displaced by violence and those affected by natural disasters; as well as, children, pregnant women, nursing mothers and the elderly. The PNSAN is a set of objectives, Objective, strategies and actions proposed by the Colombian State in a framework of shared responsibility with civil society aimed to: Protect the population of the contingencies that lead to undesirable and socially unacceptable situations such as hunger and inadequate nutrition; Ensure the population's access to quality food in a timely and adequate manner ; Achieve integration, articulation and coordination of the different inter-sectoral interventions and between institutions. More information. Production conditions, Production, Post-production, Food Aid, Sanitary conditions, Health and nutrition, Emergencies and natural resources.
First approach to molecular epidemiology of bovine tuberculosis in Colombia
Plan Nacional de Seguridad Alimentaria y Nutricional 2012-2019