ALGEBRA SUPERIOR ARACELI REYES GUERRERO PDF

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Sign In View Cart Help. Email or Username Forgot your username? Password Forgot your password? Keep me signed in. Please wait No SPIE account? Create an account Institutional Access:. Puebla, Mexico. Subscribe to Digital Library. Erratum Email Alerts notify you when an article has been updated or the paper is withdrawn.

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Create New Folder. Folder Name. Folder Description. This content is available for download via your institution's subscription. To access this item, please sign in to your personal account. Create an account. Fabrication, Design, and Instrumentation. Methodology for the third order astigmatism compensation in off-axis spherical reflective systems. The main constraint of classical off-axis reflecting systems is the primary astigmatism that by long time has been a research topic of interest.

This astigmatism in off-axis spherical reflective imaging systems can be eliminated by one proper configuration. These configurations could be derived from the marginal ray fan equation and they are valid for small angles of incidence. The conditions for the astigmatism compensation in configurations with two and three offaxis mirrors have been derived and analyzed, which has not been reported previously.

The expression that defines the conditions for primary astigmatism compensation in a four-mirror system is presented. This shows that the marginal ray fan equation can be used to obtain the condition for astigmatism compensation of a reflective system with any number of mirrors. Access to the requested content is limited to institutions that have purchased or subscribe to SPIE eBooks. To obtain this item, you may purchase the complete book in print format on SPIE.

Diffraction efficiencies profile by thickness and spatial frequency variation. Fontanilla-Urdaneta , A. Fuentes-Tapia , M. The holographic gratings on photopolymer films are studied by different spatial frequency and thickness to determine the evolution of diffraction efficiency during holographic recording. The experimental results are presented like a function of energy exposure, thickness and spatial frequency. The photopolymer emulsion is prepared with potassium dichromate and nickel II chloride hexahydrate in polyvinyl alcohol matrix.

The maximum diffraction efficiency reached is at spatial frequency f 2 for sample A. Design and construction of the automated scatterometer for particle sizing. Abad , R. Sis , E. Lo Gioudice , H. Yee-Madeira , J. A design of a scatterometer is described for applications of Mie theory.

The instrument comprises a goniometer, a lock-in amplifier, a laser, and a photomultiplier tube PMT. An embedded control programmable hardware and Windows-based Virtual Instruments simplify the design of automation of the scatterometer. The software has been modularly designed to provide independent control of the stepper motor for the motion of goniometer arm, running and on-line displaying of angular scans, auto storage of the angular scan data. The obtained benefits include facilitation of advanced data-collection techniques and collection of higher quality data.

Quasimonodisperse particle of the latex have been characterized with this set up. The measured size particles are close to the reported nominal values. This result indicated that the experimental setup warrants adequate quality measurement, which allows a reasonable solution to inverse problem. Laser ablated glass microlens arrays: aberrations dependence on reflowing temperature. Arines , D. Nieto , M. Flores-Arias , C. The Laser-direct writing technique combined with a reflowing thermal treatment has demonstrated its capability to provide microlens array with small diameter and good focusing capabilities.

We observed that by increasing the reflowing temperature we reduce the microlenses optical aberrations and increase the resemblance between microlenses. Our results show the reliability of the combination of the Laser-direct writing technique with thermal treatment for fabricating high quality microlens arrays. Vector wave holographic optical mass storage. Toyohiko Yatagai , Daisuke Barada. An optical recording technique, called retardagraphy, can record a retardance pattern of a birefringent object on a polarization-sensitive medium made of azobenzene copolymer.

In holography, a recording laser beam must be split into signal and reference parts. In contrast, it is not necessary for the retardagrapy to split the recording laser beam. This feature simplifies the optical system. The multi-valued phase pattern recorded on the polarization-sensitive medium can be reconstructed by measuring a retardation between two polarization components.

The optical recording and reconstructing methods of binary and multi-valued phase patterns are demonstrated by retardagraphy. The effect of alignment errors in polarimetry of light using liquid-crystal variable retarders.

We use known waveplates half-wave and quarter-wave as known sources to provide controlled polarization states to the Stokes polarimeter, and we use the measured Stokes parameters as functions of the orientation of the axes of the waveplates as an indication of the quality of the polarimeter.

The effects of errors in optical alignment and nonlinearity of the retardance variation on the results are presented and discussed. We also present results of simulations for comparison. Finally, we present the advances obtained in the development of a Mueller matrix polarimeter for use in a goniometric scatterometer.

Measuring radii of curvature using a calibrated lateral shearing interferometer. A technique for measuring the radius of curvature of a convex optical surface is described. Its functioning is based on a lateral shearing interferometer and the observation of the collimation of a laser beam.

Two interference patterns of straight fringes are obtained, and only when the fringes are parallel is the measurement considered. Since a previous calibration with a laser tracker or similar device is required it is not possible to measure surfaces with radii of curvature longer than ten meters due to dimensions of the laboratory.

Details of resolution and measurement uncertainty between calibrated and noncalibrated modes of the instrument are presented. Calculation of higher order dispersion coefficients in photonic crystal fibers. Monzon-Hernandez , D. We present the calculations of the higher order dispersion coefficients in a photonic crystal fiber. The dispersion coefficient is obtained from the calculated effective index of the fiber structure by double differentiation with respect to the wavelength or frequency , or from the integral formula used to calculate the group index.

Although both approaches are equivalent we show that they lead to totally dissimilar results, like different zero dispersion wavelength and hence the higher-order dispersion coefficients are different. In fact, the way in which the higher-order dispersion coefficients are calculated will affect the prediction of the dynamics of the supercontinuum generation. This effect will be discussed in this work. Measurement of absolute optical thickness by wavelength tuning interferometer.

Absolute optical thickness is a fundamental parameter for the design of optical elements. In semiconductor industry, it is necessary to measure the absolute optical thickness of the central part of the projection lenses with a high accuracy.

Moreover, the optical thickness measured by white light interferometry and wavelength tuning interferometry is an optical thickness with respect to not the ordinary refractive index but the group refractive index. We measured the ordinary optical thickness of a fused silica plate of 6-inch square and 3 mm thickness by a wavelength tuning interferometer with a tunable phase shifting technique.

We assumed the typical refractive index and dispersion of the fused silica as approximate values. The absolute interference order for the optical thickness was finally estimated, which gives a measurement resolution of typically 10 nm for the optical thickness. Stokes polarimetry using liquid-crystal variable retarders and nonlinear voltage-retardance function.

There are two standard methods of analysis to extract the Stokes vector from the data using only one detector. One is to use only certain values of the retardances to obtain data for a number of fixed polarization combinations. The other is to use all the polarization combinations of the retardances for an oscillating voltage applied to the cells, and perform a Fourier analysis on the time varying signal.

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Hybrid Artificial Intelligence Systems HAIS combines symbolic and sub-symbolic techniques to construct more robust and reliable problem solving models. This volume focused on "Hybrid Artificial Intelligence Systems" contains a collection of papers that were presented at the 2nd International Workshop on Hybrid Artificial Intelligence Systems, held in 12 - 13 November, , Salamanca, Spain. This carefully edited book provides a comprehensive overview of the recent advances in the hybrid intelligent systems and covers a wide range of application areas, including data analysis and data mining, intelligent control, pattern recognition, robotics, optimization, etc. The book is aimed at researchers, practitioners and postgraduate students who are engaged in developing and applying advanced intelligent systems principles to solving real-world problems. Skip to main content Skip to table of contents.

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