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ACI Tolerances for Design Standards for R Crack Resistant Concre DIN Anti-washout admixture Marks Ross S. Martin William S. Phelan B. Specification synopsis: This specification provides standard tolerances for concrete construction. This document is intended to be used by specification writers and ACI committees writing standards as the reference document for establishing tolerances for concrete construction. It is intended to be used with ACI for clarity of interpretation and insight into the intent of the committee regarding the application of the tolerances set forth therein.
Keywords: construction; concrete; drilled piers; formwork; foundation; masonry; mass concrete; pier; precast concrete; prestressed concrete; reinforced concrete; reinforcement; specification; splice; tolerances. Note to Specifier: This Specification is incorporated by reference in the Project Specification using the wording in P3 of the Preface and including information from the Mandatory Requirements and Optional Requirements following the Specification.
ACI Specification is intended to be used by reference or incorporation in its entirety in the Project Specification. Do not copy individual Parts, Sections, Articles, or Paragraphs into the Project Specification because taking them out of context may change their meaning. ACI Specification and Commentary are presented in a sideby-side column format, with code text placed in the left column and the corresponding commentary text aligned in the right column. To distinguish the specification from the commentary, the specification has been printed in Helvetica, which is the typeface for this paragraph.
The Commentary is printed in Times Roman, which is the typeface for this paragraph. The commentary is not a part of ACI Specification ACI Committee Reports, Guides, and Commentaries are intended for guidance in planning, designing, executing, and inspecting construction.
This Commentary is intended for the use of individuals who are competent to evaluate the significance and limitations of its content and recommendations and who will accept responsibility for the application of the material it contains. The American Concrete Institute disclaims any and all responsibility for the stated principles. The Institute shall not be liable for any loss or damage arising therefrom. Reference to this commentary shall not be made in contract documents.
All rights reserved including rights of reproduction and use in any form or by any means, including the making of copies by any photo process, or by electronic or mechanical device, printed, written, or oral, or recording for sound or visual reproduction or for use in any knowledge or retrieval system or device, unless permission in writing is obtained from the copyright proprietors.
Section 6—Masonry, p. Section 7—Cast-in-place, vertically slipformed building elements, p. No structure is exactly level, plumb, straight, and true. Fortunately, such perfection is not necessary. Tolerances are a means to establish permissible variation in dimension and location, giving both the designer and the contractor limits within which the work is to be performed. They are the means by which the designer conveys to the contractor the performance expectations upon which the design is based or that the project requires.
Such specified tolerances should reflect design assumptions and project needs, being neither overly restrictive nor lenient. Necessity rather than desirability should be the basis of selecting tolerances. They are based on normal needs and common construction techniques and practices. Specified tolerances at variance with the standard values can cause both increases and decreases in the cost of construction.
The required degree of accuracy of construction depends on the interrelationship of many factors: Structural strength and function requirements—It is imperative that structures satisfy the basic code requirement to protect life safety and are constructed in conformance with the contract documents. Aesthetics—The structure should satisfy the aesthetic requirements of the contract documents.
Economic feasibility—The specified degree of accuracy has a direct impact on the cost of production and the construction method. In general, the higher degree of construction accuracy required, the higher the construction cost. Relationship of all components—The required degree of accuracy of individual parts can be influenced by adjacent units and materials, joint and connection details, and the possibility of the accumulation of tolerances in critical dimensions.
Construction techniques—The feasibility of a tolerance depends on available craftsmanship, technology, and materials. The finish and architectural details used should be compatible with achievable concrete tolerances. Job conditions—Unique job situations and conditions should be considered. The designer should specify and clearly identify those items that require either closer or more lenient tolerances as the needs of the project dictate.
Measurement—Tolerances should be evaluated using control points and benchmarks that have been planned, established, and coordinated prior to execution of the work. Control points and benchmarks should be maintained in an undisturbed condition until final completion and acceptance of the project. Project document references ACI specification documents—The following American Concrete Institute standards provide mandatory requirements for concrete construction and can be referenced in the Project Documents: Specifications for Tolerances for Concrete Construction and Materials and Commentary Specifications for Structural Concrete M Specifications for Structural Concrete metric ACI , , , , Special structures ACI , , , , , , Materials Tolerance values affect construction cost.
Specific use of a tolerance item may warrant less or more stringent tolerances than contained in the specification. Such variances must be individually designated by the specifier in the contract documents. Tolerances in this specification are for standard concrete construction and standard construction procedures. Materials that interface with or connect to concrete elements may have tolerance requirements that are not compatible with those contained in this document.
This standard is not intended to apply to special structures not cited in the standard, such as nuclear reactors and containment vessels, bins, prestressed circular structures, and single-family residential construction. It is also not intended to apply to precast concrete or to the specialized construction procedure of shotcrete.
Specialized concrete construction or construction procedures require the specifier to include specialized tolerances.
ACI committee documents covering specialized construction may provide guidance on specialized tolerances. All parties shall be given the opportunity to identify any anticipated tolerance questions that are applicable to their work.
These questions shall be resolved before the beginning of applicable construction. Use the tolerances specified in inch-pound units if the structure was designed using inch-pound units, and use the tolerances specified in SI units if the structure was designed using SI units.
It is not permitted to convert from one system of units to another to obtain larger tolerances. Values stated in each system might not be exact equivalents; therefore, each system must be used independently from the other, without combining values in any way. The wall has a tolerance on location Section 4.
The application of the location tolerance Section 4. Similarly, the tolerance on member thickness Section 4. If the base of the wall is incorrectly located by the maximum amount allowed by Section 4. Refer to Fig. Tolerances are measured from the points, lines, and surfaces defined in the contract documents. If application of tolerances causes the extension of the structure beyond legal boundaries, the tolerance must be reduced.
The most restrictive tolerance controls. Individual tolerances are unique to their specific application and should not be combined with other tolerances to form a tolerance envelope. The separately specified tolerances must remain separate and not cumulative.
Each tolerance stands alone when evaluating the acceptability of concrete construction. Minus — tolerance decreases the amount or dimension to which it applies, or lowers a deviation from level.
For other concrete, the engineer-architect may accept the element if it meets one of the following criteria: a. Exceeding the tolerances does not affect the structural integrity, legal boundaries, or architectural requirements of the element. The element or total erected assembly can be modified to meet all structural and architectural requirements. When applied to battered walls abutments, or other nearly vertical surfaces, horizontal deviation is defined as the horizontal location of the surfaces relative to the specified profile.
When applied to nearly horizontal surfaces, vertical deviation is defined as the vertical location of the surface relative to the specified profile. Vertical deviation, horizontal deviation, and deviation from plumb are used to establish a tolerance envelope within which permissible variations can occur.
Deviation from plane, in addition to designating allowable relative displacements of elements, is used to determine the rate of change of adjacent points slope tolerance occurring within the tolerance envelope. In this fashion, the slope and smoothness of surfaces and lines within a tolerance envelope are controlled.
Abrupt changes such as offsets, saw-toothing, and sloping of lines and surfaces properly located within a tolerance envelope may be objectionable when exposed to view.
The acceptable relative alignment of points on a surface or line is determined by using a slope tolerance. Effective use of a slope tolerance requires that the specifier establish the specific distance over which the slope is to be measured, and that the surface between measurement points does not influence the measurement device.
Project specifications are the instrument for making the mandatory and optional selections available under ACI applicable and for specifying items not covered in ACI Specified lines and planes may slope and specified surfaces may have curvature.
The resulting assembly appears twisted, with the vertical joints becoming long-pitch spirals. Because these documents are revised frequently, the reader is advised to contact the proper sponsoring group if it is desired to refer to the latest version. Jackson Blvd. For bars No. The tolerance for d as stated in ACI , is a design tolerance and should not be used as a placement tolerance for construction. Reduction in cover to formed soffits shall not exceed There is an inherent conflict in the measurement of tolerances relating to reinforcing steel.
During placement of reinforcing steel, tolerances are measured from formwork or the intended future concrete finish. After a structure is complete, tolerances are measured against hardened concrete. An absolute limitation on one side of the reinforcement placement is established by the limit on the reduction in cover. For bundled bars, the distance between bundles shall not be less than the greater of 1 in.
117-06 Specifications for Tolerances for Concrete Construction and Materials and Commentary
The International Concrete Abstracts Portal is an ACI led collaboration with leading technical organizations from within the international concrete industry and offers the most comprehensive collection of published concrete abstracts. Publication: Technical Documents. Keywords: construction; concrete; drilled piers; formwork; foundation; masonry; mass concrete; pier; precast concrete; prestressed concrete; reinforced concrete; reinforcement; specification; splice; tolerances. Abstract: Note: A newer version of this document exists. This document was replaced by
International Concrete Abstracts Portal
ACI Tolerances for Design Standards for R Crack Resistant Concre DIN Anti-washout admixture Marks Ross S. Martin William S.