Authors : Melouk Mohamed. Rapid and continued globalization places pressure on Algeria as many countries to reform its higher educational system to improve the quality of university education as well as to offer training courses tailored, diversified and responsive. The main goals behind the introduction of the LMD system in Algerian universities are the adoption of a system of easily readable and comparable degrees, and the establishment of a system of credits for promotion of mobility for students and academic and administrative staff. It also aims at harmonizing our system of Higher Education, with the rest of the world. It is worth noting that the new system goes through three phases: The new elements that appear in managing teaching are: Semestrialization, and educational Units EU.
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This will contribute to the improvement of the way of studying the process of learning and teaching English, the development of new curriculum, and the understanding of language in use pragmatically. Introduction Last decades witnessed an immense quantitative evolution of higher education in Algeria. There was an important growth in terms of its infrastructure — be it material or human; this growth was followed by a succession of problems and issues that led to a gradual decadence of the teaching and learning quality at university level.
Besides, there was a serious disagreement between social demands, market demands and what the university produced. This fact proved the malfunctioning of the old system implemented in the Algerian universities since the independence of this country. The classical old system, i. The changing situation led the government and education policy makers to re-think the educational system in Algeria and to integrate a new system that can correspond and respond to socio- economic mutations contributing to a significant evolution of this country.
As matter of fact, a decision was made to implement the European educational system known as LMD — Licence - Master - Doctorate in However, in this paper, we are interested in its novelty and reliability, as a new reform, and its impact on teaching English as a foreign language EFL.
From the various opinions of learners, even longer studies are not an end in themselves, and every learner now understands that schools are the funnel one must inevitably go through in order to realize one's ambitions. Aiming to obtain higher degrees is simply a means to access better jobs likely to lead to higher social status profession, security, wage, etc. Thus, English language becomes, for EFL students, a dominant subject, an international language and a means to get access to good jobs.
Coleman addresses a similar question by reviewing the functions of English as a foreign language in development. He refers to four areas where English has often been given a role to play: for employability, for international mobility, for unlocking development opportunities, and accessing information as an impartial language. According to many writers, the emphasis on foreign languages like English Graddol, ; Batibo, has been regarded as an insignificant contribution by African education policy makers to knowledge and production, but Phillipson observes, after independence, that those who were first responsible for making English official and developed are African leaders.
For instance, in Algeria, prior to independence and after the s, a new revolution came to the surface. The government or the Algerian authorities started new relations with the Arab World English Journal www. Our EFL students had been studying English from the eight grade in the middle school to the third grade of the secondary school up to English language teaching and learning too, at that time, was catastrophic because of the lack of interest and many other factors such as economic, political, religious, educational, and so on.
According to some older generation teachers, the majority of pupils were not interested in learning English and even French because they focus their studies on mathematics, physics, life sciences and nature and other fields but not languages, i.
Moreover, the majority of teachers were not at all interested in the syllabus presented to them and they found it meaningless and boring. Bouhadiba also argues that the failure of a time-based teaching program, no matter where it is implemented developing or more advanced societies , lies in the way the teacher that he moves on to the next lesson or the next unit to be within the limits of the scheduled teaching program unlike the competency-based approach.
It can be argued that the process of teaching and learning English as a foreign language has taken many steps to improve the way of acquiring and mastering this means for communication to become closer to joining the worldwide community. The question to be answered was how to make it efficient. Because English has become the most dominant and useful language among many European languages, many governments have adopted various policies that promote ELT and Algeria is no exception.
At present, English is considered as a foreign language that is offered as a required subject at all levels of university education. In order to understand and recognize that the efficiency of English language development in the Algerian educational system paves the way for learners to take part in the globalization, our government has made a huge effort to change the ELT policy and some changes were made in the s.
For instance, at university level, recently the LMD system that is applied as a new approach is based on the Communicative Approach that has been implemented in the Algerian university almost in all subjects and specialties. The LMD system, as the latest new reform applied in the Algerian universities, aims at bringing the Algerian diploma to the universality and the Algerian student to a higher level of learning on the one hand and to the business world on the other.
The introduction of LMD into the Algerian universities should be accompanied by these new ideas for innovative teaching practices to improve the performance of the university system but also lead to greater employability of graduates.
Although the text of regulations in the LMD system brings some innovations in assessment and the roles of teachers and students in the Arab World English Journal www. Bringing a certain kind of flexibility in assessment of learning, the new article 18 of Decree No. Thus, the evaluation of students leans now on a set of procedures meant to measure the results of their learning in terms of the grasped knowledge, the deduced comprehension and the acquired competence. In the same way, within the framework of new procedures in the LMD system that the teacher has to be able to pass logic of knowledge controlling to a process of evaluation seems rather feasible.
Another aspect that the LMD system brings into the universities is the new roles of teachers and students in the teaching and learning process. Consequently, the role of teachers has been modified for the reason that it suits the freedom given and prescribed for the learner.
Thus, teachers have to accept now their role as a mediator, a facilitator of the knowing and the learning processes. Teachers, therefore, are no more the only, exclusive omnipotent of knowledge. They are called to master not only the discipline they teach but also the methodological competencies that allow them to clearly define the objectives of the learning process as well as the referential of the competence on which the control of the learning process is based.
What is more disturbing is the reaction of teachers for whom a considerable effort is displayed to construct offers of innovative formation, but who barely worry about the questions related to the pedagogic practices and in particular those related to the evaluation of students.
Despite that, even if the necessity to renovate the contents of formation is not deniable, the demand of a new vision of the pedagogical act is essential and indispensable. This vision has to integrate the actual realities into the considerable increasing of knowledge.
Moving from an annual system to a semi-annual system that tolerates the passing to the following year with debts is often conflicting and it imposes an individualized management of students. Moreover, the temporary co-habitation between the two systems until a full disappearance of the classical system renders the organization of teachers and more particularly the evaluation of students more difficult and those that result in the progression and the orientation in the LMD system. We will observe these in the light of our short experience in Mostaganem University.
To investigate how the LMD system functions in the Algerian university and in English departments in particular, this research study discusses some key issues related to the LMD system and how, whether positively or negatively, it would influence ELT.
It also considers the impact of LMD benefits related to students. As for the evaluation of this reform as successful or unsuccessful, we believe that we are not yet at the stage of assessing the LMD system in our universities.
This work is, then, about an analytical, optimistic and a future perspective regarding the quality of learning that this system may bring to our learners without ignoring or denying its drawbacks and the obstacles that the Algerian university may face to make it successful.
Arab World English Journal www. Method Our research work is a tentative attempt to investigate the attitudes of teachers and students towards the implementation of LMD system and its success or failure. This study focuses on mainly the following questions: 1.
What are the attitudes of the English teachers towards the implementation of the LMD system in Algerian universities, in particular, Mostaganem University? What are the attitudes of students towards the implementation of the LMD system in Algerian universities, in particular, Mostaganem University? What are the teachers and students' opinions about the contribution of the LMD system to teaching English as a foreign language EFL in Algerian universities, in particular, Mostaganem University?
What are the difficulties and challenges that Algerian teachers of English face in implementing LMD and the integration of information and communication technologies ICTs in their English classrooms? The present study is a cross-sectional survey under qualitative paradigm. Considering the purpose of the study, in order to collect necessary data, an in-depth interviewing technique is adopted. It can also be used to explore interesting areas for further investigation.
This type of interview is a face-to-face interviewing that involves asking informants open-ended questions, and probing wherever it is necessary to obtain data deemed useful by the researchers. As in- depth interviewing often involves qualitative data, it is also called qualitative interviewing. It was decided to use in-depth interviewing as the main method to collect data for this study since an interpretative approach qualitative in nature was adopted for the investigation. The central concern of the interpretative research is to understand human experiences at a holistic level.
Because of the nature of this type of research, investigations are often connected with methods such as in-depth interviewing, participant observation and the collection of relevant documents. Maykut and Morehouse , p. The most useful ways of gathering these forms of data are participant observation, in-depth interviews, group interviews, and the collection of relevant documents.
Observation and interview data is collected by the researcher in the form of field notes and audio-taped interviews, which are later transcribed for use in data analysis. There is also some qualitative research being done with photographs and video-taped observations as primary sources of data.
Our informants were given, orally, a series of questionnaires, and then given time to answer them. Their answers were analyzed considering their linguistic level arising from their points of views as well as their observations towards the new reforms and the integration of the ICT too in the classroom such as the Internet use.
What was observed at a linguistic and didactic level in our data analysis is that teaching and learning English as a foreign language in university, in terms of English development came out of not only the new changes and reforms brought to the educational setting but also other means of communication, notably the Internet use and other means of communication widely used among students and teachers too.
Hence, our data would be classified according to the number of students interviewees selected and their learning level: first year licence LMD, second year licence LMD, first year master and second year master grade.
Context The research study took place in Mostaganem; it has been followed and supervised since the LMD new reform was implemented in Mostaganem University in This location, Mostaganem city, was selected because Mostaganem University is among the pioneering universities to adopt LMD, thus it could provide us with a sample of students and teachers whose characteristics are appropriate for the research study, and as a teacher at Mostaganem University who witnessed the implementation of LMD new reform, we could have this opportunity to do this investigation.
To reinforce our work, we have also interviewed 10 English classical or licence students from the second, third and fourth years. The informants, male and female, were chosen purposefully from different levels according to the conditions mentioned before. The reason for their participation in this survey was to check whether the LMD system affects them either positively or negatively and why in both cases.
The sampling method used in this study was purposive sampling as considered appropriate in qualitative research. According to Fraenkel and Wallen , p. Data collection instruments The data collection instruments used in this research study are a semi-structured audio-taped interview guide that contained 10 items and a questionnaire given to the students mentioned before for the purpose of getting some analysis of their experience as the first generation who welcomes this reform.
Data Collection Procedure This research study was conducted in two phases that took about one year of observation and analyses to follow the process of learning and teaching advancement. It took a considerable time to get accurate results without any subjective judgment. The views of the teachers collected through our questionnaire were used as a tool of argumentation and analysis at the same time to affirm the aim of this study regarding the psychological dimension of the accepted reform imposed on them without any kind of awareness or pedagogical training supplied by higher educational system.
It is also at the level of high quality teaching that could be reached through the integration of new technologies, i. It is indeed a difficult task for the teacher, yet it helps most teachers to improve their knowledge, teaching materials and professional capacities.
It is useful for teachers as it allows more cooperation and unified courses and syllabi. As for the students, it is a way of providing all students same chances in terms of teaching materials and assessment. However, an LMD student is obliged to do more efforts than a classical student because of the nature of the system. Results and Discussion The results show that EFL teachers observe and detect many difficulties in implementing LMD in university particularly in their classrooms.
These difficulties influenced teachers, students and the educational system. The results suggest that despite the newness of the LMD as a new reform and the lack of supplying more pedagogical training for teachers and students in university before LMD implementation, Algerian teachers are optimistic about the complete adoption of the LMD system, and thus expect that they can face all sorts of problems in overcoming the difficulties and establishing and mastering the use of ICTS in their classrooms.
The modules, the scoring, the assessment, the teaching materials and above all the teacher-learner rapport all are distinct in the LMD than in the classical system.
Ministry promises improvements to LMD system
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THE LMD SYSTEM IN ALGERIA: THE CASE OF ENGLISH
The search for new knowledge, its dissemination and application in society have always been at the forefront of intellectual and social development. Today, higher education institutions HEIs have — to a large extent — taken on the vital role of nurturing the methodical, critical and innovative thinking that is key to the success of such development. But in a country like Algeria, where HEIs have practically no autonomy, this responsibility falls back on state policies for higher education management. What then is the status of higher education policies in Algeria? Massification was a core part of both reforms, in part motivated by the demographic reality of a large youth population, but also by explicit policy choices undertaken by the government. In , for instance, the General Directorate for Scientific Research and Technological Development DGRS-DT declared that there were around researchers per million inhabitants in Algeria, falling fairly short of the global average.
The LMD reform was launched as a pilot scheme in the Algerian universities during the academic year Three years after the implementation of the first cycle Licence degree and at the time of the implementation of the second cycle Master degree. Many universities started questioning the efficiency of the new degree system Licence, Master, Doctorate. The biggest obstacle they faced, and are still facing today, is in terms of the lack of the human and material resources.