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For this reason, the objective of this work was to describe the effect of age and dissociative anesthetics ketamine and tiletamine , and their combinations with acepromazine, xylazine and zolazepam, on the physiological and blood biochemical parameters in Macaca mulatta. Eighty male Macaca mulatta were divided into four experimental groups depending on the anesthetic mixture applied. A blood sample was drawn to analyze blood biochemistry. The analysis of blood biochemistry found significant differences by age and by anesthetic mixture among all groups.

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For this reason, the objective of this work was to describe the effect of age and dissociative anesthetics ketamine and tiletamine , and their combinations with acepromazine, xylazine and zolazepam, on the physiological and blood biochemical parameters in Macaca mulatta. Eighty male Macaca mulatta were divided into four experimental groups depending on the anesthetic mixture applied.

A blood sample was drawn to analyze blood biochemistry. The analysis of blood biochemistry found significant differences by age and by anesthetic mixture among all groups.

These findings contribute to standardizing this animal model in biological research. Thus, there is an ongoing need to present normative data that includes refining the handling and diagnostic techniques used with NHPs, and to establish normative parameters for each research laboratory that consider several key factors, including age, sex, type of alimentation, type of confinement, and geographic location, among others.

Chemical restriction or subjection, in particular, reduces stress in animals while increasing safety and improving the quality of the samples obtained. This procedure was performed to reduce the stress generated by the capture of the animals. Temperature was taken rectally. The following central tendency measures were obtained: means, typical deviation and typical error for each age group during both monitoring of the physiological constants and evaluation of blood biochemistry.

Later, the homogeneity of variances test was conducted using Levene's test. Two sets of statistical analyses were performed, the first dependent on the factor of age, the second on the factor of the anesthetic mixture administered. Based on the analysis comparing the anesthetic mixtures to controls K in each age group, in all cases, results showed that KA and KX were statistically different compared to the control group K.

Effect of anesthetic mixtures on heart rate bpm in male rhesus monkeys Macaca mulatta. Statistical analysis of ANOVA reveals significant differences between anesthetic mixtures against the control group K , using Bonferroni and Games Howell post hoc tests.

Effect of anesthetic mixtures on respiratory rate rpm in male rhesus monkeys Macaca mulatta. Effect of anesthetic mixtures on systolic pressure mm Hg in male rhesus monkeys Macaca mulatta. Effect of anesthetic mixtures on diastolic pressure mm Hg in male rhesus monkeys Macaca mulatta. Based on the statistical analysis, contrasting the age groups in each treatment group showed some statistically significant differences.

In the case of KX, there were no statistical differences between the age groups. In both cases, the HR in the youngest animals was increased compared to the oldest animals. The statistical analysis of blood biochemistry results contrasting the anesthetic mixture groups in each age group showed statistical differences in Group 1 for GLU F 3,5. Anesthetic agents are commonly applied to laboratory animals to prevent the pain or stress caused by experimental procedures or to facilitate zootechnical handling by means of chemical restraint.

Dissociative agents have been widely used to produce hypnosis in animals. Ketamine and tiletamine are chemically related, dissociative anesthetics that are among those most often used in veterinary medicine. However, we know that different anesthetic drugs depress or alter vital functions in distinct degrees.

So it necessary to administer more of a drug in combination, called balanced anesthesia, since this reduces the risks of using anesthesia.

The results obtained from measuring the physiological constants in each treatment group showed that there is an increase in HR in younger age groups, diminishing in all cases in the senile group.

However, in the statistical analysis comparing the age groups in each treatment group only in the case of TZ and K, there were statistical differences. This phenomenon is widely described in the literature, and is attributed mainly to a sensory immaturity of the vagus nerve related to the baroreflex control of heart rate in the case of young animals, together with faster metabolic processes, than in the case of senile animals.

These findings are consistent with data reported in the literature, which affirm that acepromazine—a derivative of the phenothiazines—achieves its effect by bonding to dopamine receptors in the brain, thus depressing the CNS by affecting the basal ganglia, hypothalamus, limbic system, brainstem, and reticular activation system.

This, in turn, produces sedation and muscular relaxation while also reducing motor activity. However, the secondary effects described include hypotension, bradycardia, and a slight depression of the respiratory system.

In addition, this has been shown to decrease the number of respirations per minute by depressing the respiratory centers of the CNS, findings that are consistent with the reduction in SpO 2 observed in Group 5. With regard to ketamine, this drug has been associated with a tendency to stimulate the cardiovascular system by presenting sympathomimetic properties that cause an increase in HR, cardiac output, and arterial and central venous pressure, 26 , 46 which is related to the increases in HR, SP and DP recorded in the experimental group that received ketamine alone.

However, these changes fall within the normal physiological parameters of this NHP species. Differences among age groups were evident for several of the biochemical measures recorded; however, results show that the same statistical differences did not appear in all treatments administered among the same age groups.

This finding emphasizes the importance of considering the interaction of each anesthetic mixture with each age group. This increase is attributed to the fact that most anesthetic agents, such as benzodiazepines or neuromuscular blockers, reduce the urinary rate and glomerular filtrate to various degrees, though this effect tends to be transitory, not clinically relevant, and preventable with good hydration.

As reported previously, studies show that ketamine can have various effects on blood biochemistry, which can include hypoproteinemia. These changes can be attributed to a reduction in liver mass or liver function in senile monkeys.

Earlier studies showed that AST tends to increase due to the muscular irritation caused by intramuscular administration of drugs. There are also reports that many medications tend to alter AST values, but the AST levels obtained in our different age groups were similar to those reported by Buchl and Howard, 55 whose study utilized ketamine only as the chemical restraint for the animals and reported statistical changes attributable to age. There are reports that muscular lesions increase the activity of muscular enzymes.

Our results therefore suggest that this increase may be due to local myotoxicity caused by intramuscular injection. This may explain the variations that the present study observed in the hepatic enzymes. There are reports that AST—an enzyme with great metabolic activity present in tissues—is released into circulation when cell lesions or cell death occur. In this regard, our observations show that all the anesthetic mixtures presented increases compared to Group D K , such that interaction with muscle relaxants could tend to influence the release of this enzyme and have an effect on the myotoxicity that occurs with intramuscular administration of these compounds.

There are reports that both enzymes tend to increase due to muscular lesions caused by intramuscular administration of drugs and the toxicity of these substances for muscles. CL, meanwhile, increased in the group treated with TZ. Only a few studies have reported these variations in work with NHPs. In relation to the analyses that compared the age groups, our study found that P decreased in the older animals compared to the infant and juvenile groups in KX, TZ and K.

This is also consistent with reports in the literature. It is important to emphasize that while our results reveal significant differences among the different anesthetic mixtures compared to controls, they remained within the ranges of normality published previously. This is attributed to the fact that young animals have not yet fully developed their biotransformation and excretion mechanisms, while those in advanced age suffer a reduced efficiency of those same mechanisms.

The results obtained in this study demonstrate the need to evaluate the changes generated by different anesthetics and anesthetic mixtures in rhesus monkeys, especially when these analytes are the central objects of interest. The results of the present study may also make it possible to select the anesthetic that will produce the fewest changes in the variables of interest.

Moreover, refining techniques of physical and chemical restraint will allow greater certainty and wider safety margins when drawing and analyzing samples for blood chemistry and physiological constants, which are basic instruments commonly used in processes of clinical diagnostics, inclusion criteria in diverse experiments, and zootechnical handling and animal welfare.

All authors listed on title page have participated in the formulation of the investigation and also have read the manuscript, attest to the validity and legitimacy of data and its interpretation. Animal Model Exp Med. Read article at publisher's site DOI : To arrive at the top five similar articles we use a word-weighted algorithm to compare words from the Title and Abstract of each citation. Comp Med , 51 5 , 01 Oct Cited by 71 articles PMID: Cited by 7 articles PMID: Lab Anim Sci , 41 1 , 01 Jan Cited by 10 articles PMID: Acta Vet Scand Suppl , , 01 Jan Cited by 22 articles PMID: J Med Primatol , 7 4 , 01 Jan Cited by 5 articles PMID: Coronavirus: Find the latest articles and preprints.

Europe PMC requires Javascript to function effectively. Recent Activity. Recent history Saved searches. Search articles by 'Herlinda Bonilla Jaime'. Bonilla Jaime H 2 ,. Poblano A 3 ,. Search articles by 'Marcela Arteaga-Silva'. Arteaga-Silva M 2 ,. Search articles by 'Armando Contreras-Uribe'. Contreras-Uribe A 4 ,. Affiliations 1 author 1. Share this article Share with email Share with twitter Share with linkedin Share with facebook. Methods:Eighty male Macaca mulatta were divided into four experimental groups depending on the anesthetic mixture applied.

Each group of 20 males was divided into five sub-groups according to age. Results:Statistical analyses revealed significant differences in the physiological parameters between the ketamine-acepromazine and ketamine-xylazine groups compared to the control group. Conclusion:These findings contribute to standardizing this animal model in biological research.

Free full text. Published online Mar PMID: Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Corresponding author. Email: moc. Go to:. Methods Eighty male Macaca mulatta were divided into four experimental groups depending on the anesthetic mixture applied. Conclusion These findings contribute to standardizing this animal model in biological research.

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Fischbach, Frances Talaska Overview. Publication Timeline. Most widely held works by Frances Talaska Fischbach. Nurse's quick reference to common laboratory and diagnostic tests by Marshall Barnett Dunning Book 22 editions published between and in English and held by 1, WorldCat member libraries worldwide "Based on the respected and widely used reference book, A Manual of Laboratory and Diagnostic Tests, Seventh Edition, this streamlined and portable reference provides an alphabetical listing of common lab and diagnostic tests, plus related nursing interventions Essential information includes indications, reference values, clinical implications, procedural guidance, and nursing interventions.

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