A number in parentheses indicates the year of last reapproval. A superscript epsilon indicates an editorial change since the last revision or reapproval. Included manufacture of natural fiber cores, covers, or inserts for the in this specification are wire ropes in various grades and purpose of providing protection against rotting and decay of constructions from 14 in. Also included are 3.
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A number in parentheses indicates the year of last reapproval. A superscript epsilon indicates an editorial change since the last revision or reapproval. Included manufacture of natural fiber cores, covers, or inserts for the in this specification are wire ropes in various grades and purpose of providing protection against rotting and decay of constructions from 14 in. Also included are 3. For specific applica- during and after manufacture of the rope to fiber inserts, fillers, tions, additional or alternative requirements may apply.
Within the text, the SI units 3. The values stated in each system are not rial applied during the manufacture of a strand, core, or rope exact equivalents; therefore, each system shall be used inde- for the purpose of reducing internal friction, providing protec- pendently of the other.
Combining values from the two systems tion against corrosion, or both. Referenced Documents which are laid helically the strands of a stranded rope or the 2. The round strand or the stranded Determination of Actual Breaking rope core or its outer strands, or both, may also be covered or filled with either fiber or solid polymer. Steel cores are 3. Terminology normally made as a separate independent element, the excep- tion being rope with a stranded rope core closed parallel with Description of Terms Specific to this Specification the outer strands.
The center may consist of one round or shaped wire, of several round wires 1 This specification is under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee A01 on Steel, forming a built-up center, or of fiber or some other material. If Stainless Steel and Related Alloys and is the direct responsibility of Subcommittee multiple wires are used in a strand center, they may be counted A Current edition approved Oct.
Published December Originally 3. DOI: Licensed to Robert Gonzalez. Single user license only. Copying and networking prohibited. NOTE 1Strand construction is designated by listing the number of wires, beginning with the outer wires, with each layer separated by a hyphen. Exceptions are stranded wire ropes consisting of three or four outer strands that may or may not be laid around a core.
Elements of stranded wire rope are shown in Fig. There that is, galvanized at finished size. Commonly referred to as bright wire. The wires of superimposed wire layers cross covering wires.
The lay length of all the wire layers is equal, 3. There are four types of force of the rope. The exception is a Warrington layer comprising b filler F , adjdescribes a construction having outer large and small wires where the smaller wires are positioned on layer containing twice the number of wires than the inner layer, a larger pitch circle than the larger wires. The first layer of with filler wires laid in the interstices between the layers. Filler wires is that which is laid over the strand center.
Filler wires do wires are designated with the letter F Fig. Diameter is expressed in inches or millimeters Fig. The lay length of a strand is that corresponding to the outer layers of wires Fig. Manufacture Rope FIG. Mechanical Properties 3. Dimensional Characteristics 3. AExample of Combined Parallel Lay ex. Initial extension cannot be determined by calculation. Torsion requirements are based on the wire diameter and either the wire level, as specified in Specification A, or the tensile strength grade, as specified in ISO Requirements for wire tensile strength are determined by either the wire level, as specified in Specification A, or by the tensile strength grade, as specified in ISO It is FIG.
Terminology Relating to Ropes 3. For classification details, refer to Table 2. See 6. Rope grade does not imply that the actual tensile strength of the strands, and the number of wires in the strand. For construction wires in the rope is necessarily of this grade. The 3 symbol is read as to the longitudinal axis of the rope.
Requirements for cable-laid rope are not cov- 7 over 18 thru 6 ered in this standard. The lay direction of the rope will be either right AZ or and comprising an assembly of two or more layers of strands left AS. Alternate lay can also be supplied with two lang lay laid helically around a center, the direction of lay of the outer strands followed by one regular ordinary lay strand in a strands being opposite to that of the underlying layer.
There are repeating pattern. It shall contain the following 3. The following more layers of strands laid helically around a core, the additional information can be supplied under agreement be- direction of the lay of the outer strands being opposite that is, tween purchaser and supplier.
These items shall be completed contra-lay to that of the underlying layer. Ordering Information 4. Material requirements that are necessary for material ordered under this 5. Such requirements may include, but are not the appropriate requirements of Specification A or limited to, the following: ISO The manufacturer, subject to the limits in Table 1, Item Examples shall determine the tensile strength grade so that the minimum inch-pound [SI] breaking force of the rope is achieved.
Length ft m Size diameter 34 in. Preformed or non-preformed Preformed Preformed 5. Termination of rope ends 5. Special packaging and identification 5. Prestretching 5. Natural fiber cores shall be treated with an Zn-5Al-MM may be substituted for final-galvanized wire at the impregnating compound free from acid. Fiber cores larger than option of the manufacturer. Minimum weight of coating shall in. Steel cores wires shall be galvanized zinc coated , including those of any of single layer ropes larger than in.
Minimum weight of coating shall be as specified in be independent wire ropes IWRC , unless specified otherwise. Table 4. Steel cores shall be lubricated. Cores closed in one operation 6. Minimum weight of coating shall be as process with a suitable lubricant selected by the manufacturer.
Stranding lubricants used for fiber core ropes shall be compat- ible with the impregnating compound of the fiber core. Rope Properties and Tolerances be one of the following: Right regular ordinary lay sZ 6. Right regular ordinary lay will be supplied for six, seven, NOTE 2Where only the rope classification is specified by the pur- and eight-strand constructions unless otherwise specified by chaser, the manufacturer shall determine the construction.
The manufacturer shall determine core 6. Cores with inserts or solid polymer cores are specified by the purchaser and shall be the dimension by which subject to agreement between the supplier and purchaser. For small diameter specialty cord with units are shown in the indicated tables: diameters from in.
Tables 6. For wire ropes re- except for 3 or 4 strand ropes, and multi-layer ropes with round quested with metallic coated wires, the wires shall be galva- or shaped strands, the length of lay of the finished rope shall nized unless otherwise specified by the purchaser. Inner, filler, and center wires shall example, flattened triangular strand, the length of lay of the be supplied as final-galvanized or drawn-galvanized.
Minimum finished rope shall not exceed 10 times the nominal rope weight of coating for galvanized wire shall be as specified in diameter. Tables 3 and 4. Tables of this standard. StrandsA 7 Wires 7 or Outer Strands 6 Outer Wires 6 or Layer of Strands 2 Layer of Wires 1 or 2. Wires in RopeA 42 or excluding core strand Typical Examples Number of Outer Wires. Rope Strand Total Per Strand.
After the last cycle, the tensile load is completely released. Testing and Compliance 6. The manufacturer shall be able to as given in Tables or as specified by the manufacturer. Ropes required lengths representing the current design. The purpose of these with more restrictive length tolerance shall be agreed upon by the supplier tests is to assure the manufacturers ability to produce a rope and purchaser.
Periodic acceptance tests are successfully com- 7. Rope Workmanship and Finish pleted on a sample taken from a minimum of every twentieth 7.
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Historical Version s - view previous versions of standard. More A This specification covers stranded steel wire ropes of various grades and constructions manufactured from uncoated or metallic coated wire and cord products manufactured from metallic coated wire. Dimensional characteristics include the diameter and lay length of the rope. Mechanical property requirements include: rope breaking force, spinning loss factor, and stretch; and wire torsions, tensile strength, tensile grade, and level. Cores of stranded ropes shall normally either be of steel or fiber composition. All wire ropes shall be lubricated and impregnated in the manufacturing process.
ASTM A1023/A1023M - 19